The purpose of this study was to determine visual behavior and motor responses between experienced and novice wheelchair tennis players relative to the return in tennis. Novice (n = 7) and Experienced (n = 5) wheelchair tennis players took part in the study. Two series of serves performed to the forehand and the backhand sides were examined in both groups. One series was performed in a video-based setting (two dimensional) and the other one on court (three dimensional). Experienced participants focused initially on the head/shoulders and the free-arm, while novice players focused on the expected ball toss area or followed the ball from the toss to the apex. Results suggest that the experienced players obtain useful information from racket-arm cues during the stroke phase. They also performed faster motor responses as well.
Visual Behavior and Motor Responses of Novice and Experienced Wheelchair Tennis Players Relative to the Service Return
Raúl Reina, Francisco J. Moreno, and David Sanz
Comparison of the Physical Response During Official Matches and Small-Sided Games in International Cerebral Palsy Footballers: Implications for Evidence-Based Classification
Javier Yanci, Daniel Castillo, Aitor Iturricastillo, Matías Henríquez, Alba Roldan, and Raúl Reina
This study aimed to analyze whether there are differences and associations in the physical responses in international-level cerebral palsy footballers between official matches and 2v2 small-sided games (2v2-SSG). One hundred seventy international cerebral palsy footballers participated in this study during three international championships. The physical responses of mean and maximum velocities, total distance, distance covered at different intensities, short-term actions, and player load were collected during 2v2-SSG and the real competition. The mean velocity, total distance, jogging, medium- and high-intensity distances, the number of moderate/high accelerations, decelerations, and player load were relatively higher in the 2v2-SSG than in the official matches. Even though the 2v2-SSG could become an appropriate drill to include during the classification process, due to the differences between a 2v2-SSG and the official competition, it is necessary to deepen the scientific knowledge for developing observation methods during real competition to strengthen the relationships between eligible impairments and activity limitation.
Time−Motion Characteristics and Physiological Responses of Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy in Two Small-Sided Games and a Simulated Game
Matías Henríquez, Aitor Iturricastillo, Arturo González-Olguín, Felipe Herrera, Sonny Riquelme, and Raul Reina
This study compared physical performance in a group of international cerebral palsy football players during two formats of small-sided games (SSGs) and performance in a simulated game (SG) according to players’ sport classes (FT1, FT2, and FT3). Internal load (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) and external load (total distance, distance covered at different velocities, maximum speed reached, acceleration, and deceleration) were obtained with global positioning system devices during two formats of SSGs (2-a-side/SSG2 and 4-a-side/SSG4) and an SG (7-a-side). SSG2 demands faster actions compared with SSG4/SG, and significant differences and large effect sizes were found in the distance covered in Speed Zones 5 (16.0−17.9 km/hr) and 6 (>18.0 km/hr; p < .05;
Student Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Physical Education: The Impact of Ability Beliefs, Gender, and Previous Experiences
Raul Reina, Yeshayahu Hutzler, María C. Iniguez-Santiago, and Juan A. Moreno-Murcia
This study addresses the associations between students’ ability beliefs and attitudes toward inclusion in physical education, as well as the impact of gender and previous contact/participation with children with disability on these variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 976 students (491 girls and 485 boys; age 11–16 years), who responded to ability beliefs and attitudes questionnaires. Ability beliefs (entity and incremental) and the 3 sociodemographic variables predicted 20.4% and 9% of the behavioral and cognitive subscales of attitudes, respectively. Students with higher scores for entity beliefs of ability had a less favorable attitude toward inclusion. Girls reported more favorable attitudes toward inclusion than boys. Students who indicated previous participation in physical activities with children with disabilities showed attitudes that were more favorable in both the behavioral and cognitive subscales, while those who reported previous contact had more favorable attitudes in the behavioral subscale and lower entity beliefs. However, the 3 sociodemographic variables had a lower contribution to the explained variance of attitudes.