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Shelley L. Holden, Christopher M. Keshock, Brooke E. Forester and Robert J. Heitman


Athlete burnout is a phenomenon that has been studied in previous research and is a concern in terms of athlete’s health and well–being (Capel, Sisley, & Desertrain, 1987; Harris, 2005; Kelley, Eklund, & Ritter-Taylor, 1999; Kjormo & Halvari, 2006; Raedeke, Warren, & Granzyk, 2000). Further, it is assumed by many sport coaches that the longer an athlete competes competitively in a sport, the greater chance for athlete burnout and the potential negative health consequences they could incur.


The purpose of the current study was to determine the correlation between years of sport competition and an athlete’s level of burnout on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) subscales of Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA).


The study was limited female athletes at a Division I institution in the Southeastern United States. Participants for this study were obtained via voluntary participation. The number of female athletes who completed the survey was 99. Athletes who participated were members of the women’s basketball, cross country, golf, soccer, softball, track and field, and volleyball teams.


The data was analyzed using Pearson correlations. Each burnout subscale was analyzed separately with years of sport competition. Results found no significant (p<.05) correlations between years of sport competition and EE (p=.038), DP (p=.029), or PA (p=-.062).


The current findings indicate that years of sport competition are not correlated with levels of burnout and female Division I collegiate athletes. Much prior research has also examined intensive training and effects on young athletes and concluded that there are concerns about intense training and psychological injury (Maffulli & Pintore, 1990). Therefore, based upon prior research and the results of the current study, future research should continue to study the effects of years of competition and burnout in order to truly understand its effects on athletes.

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John E. Kovaleski, Robert J. Heitman, Larry R. Gurchiek, Joel W. Erdmann and Terry L. Trundle

The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the Closed Chain Rider System (Mettler Electronics) between exercise sessions and to determine the effects of limb dominance using muscle force and work measures during closed chain leg press exercise. Thirty-nine recreationally active college students underwent identical testing on two occasions, during which each subject performed five reciprocal leg press movements at speeds of 10, 15, and 20 in./s while seated. Average force, total work, and linear range of motion were recorded. Reliability values for average force and work were clinically acceptable for the dominant and nondominant limbs. The dominant limb produced greater average force and total work versus the nondominant limb, and average linear ROM was similar between the dominant and nondominant limbs. Differences in the torque and work values observed suggest that the clinician must be aware of differences between the dominant and nondominant limbs when used for comparative purposes.

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John E. Kovaleski, Robert J. Heitman, Damon P.S. Andrew, Larry R. Gurchiek and Albert W. Pearsall IV


Isokinetic strength and functional performance are used to assess recovery after rehabilitation. It is not known whether low-speed closed-linear-kinetic isokinetic muscle strength correlates with functional performance.


To investigate the relationship between linear closed (CKC) and open (OKC) concentric isokinetic strength of the dominant lower-limb extensors and functional performance.


Correlational analysis.


University laboratory.


Thirty uninjured men and women (age = 20.9 ± 2.4 years).

Main Outcome Measures:

Peak CKC and OKC isokinetic strength and best score from a shuttle run for time, single-leg vertical jump, and single-leg hop for distance.


Neither lower-limb CKC nor OKC isokinetic strength measured at low speeds correlated highly with performance on the functional tasks of jumping, hopping, and speed/agility.


Although the basis of both closed and open isokinetic strength must be appreciated, they should not be the only determinants of functional performance.