The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between isometric measures of muscular function at two different joint angles and dynamic performance. Thirteen experienced weight trainers performed two isometric tests in a bench press position, at elbow angles of 90 and 120°. Performance was assessed by a one repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press and a series of upper body bench press throws at loads of 15, 30, and 60% of the 1-RM load. The results clearly show that changing the joint angle from 120 to 90° improved the relationship between most of the tests and performance by more than 100%, possibly due to differences in motor unit recruitment patterns and differing muscle mechanics (e.g., length-tension), at varying joint angles. It was suggested that the best angle at which to assess isometric function may be the joint angle at which peak force is developed in the performance of interest.
Aron J. Murphy, Greg J. Wilson, John F. Pryor, and Robert U. Newton
Robert U. Newton, William J. Kraemer, Keijo Häkkinen, Brendan J. Humphries, and Aron J. Murphy
The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics, kinetics, and neural activation of the traditional bench press movement performed explosively and the explosive bench throw in which the barbell was projected from the hands. Seventeen male subjects completed three trials with a bar weight of 45% of the subject's previously determined 1RM. Performance was significantly higher during the throw movement compared to the press for average velocity, peak velocity, average force, average power, and peak power. Average muscle activity during the concentric phase for pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, and biceps brachii was higher for the throw condition. It was concluded that performing traditional press movements rapidly with light loads does not create ideal loading conditions for the neuromuscular system with regard to explosive strength production, especially in the final stages of the movement, because ballistic weight loading conditions where the resistance was accelerated throughout the movement resulted in a greater velocity of movement, force output, and EMG activity.
Tim L.A. Doyle, Ronald W. Davis, Brendan Humphries, Eric L. Dugan, Bryon G. Horn, Jae Kun Shim, and Robert U. Newton
A number of researchers have long questioned systems used for classifying athletes with disabilities. Wheelchair basketball players have gained much attention from researchers. Despite this, no change to the NWBA classification system has been made since it was first adopted in 1984. This study investigated the NWBA classification system. At two summer basketball camps, 46 players were tested to assess player sprint performance and stratification under the NWBA medical classification system. The group consisted of Class 1, 2, and 3 players. Electronic timing gates were used to collect 20 meter sprint-times. Results indicate that Class 1 players were significantly slower compared to Class 2 and 3 players (p < .05) with no difference between Class 2 and 3. The results of this study support a change to this system.
William J. Kraemer, N. Travis Triplett, Andrew C. Fry, L. Perry koziris, Jeffrey E. Bauer, James M. Lynch, Tim McConnell, Robert U. Newton, Scott E. Gordon, Richard C. Nelson, and Howard G. Knuttgen
The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth sports medicine profile of women college tennis players and determine the relationships among an array of performance and clinical variables. Thirty-eight non-resistance-trained women from NCAA Divisions I and III collegiate tennis teams participated. A comprehensive battery of performance tests was conducted on each subject, including measurements of dynamic, isometric, and isokinetic strength; joint laxity and flexibility; speed; agility; power and power endurance; peak oxygen consumption; body composition; and ball velocities of the serve, forehand, and backhand. It was found that no single variable strongly explains tennis performance. The low amount of shared variance of strength measures with ball velocities suggests that tennis skills play a large role in producing peak ball velocities in this group. Due to the large range observed in profiled variables, individual evaluation is needed for clinical and conditioning recommendations.
William J. Kraemer, Jill A. Bush, Robbin B. Wickham, Craig R. Denegar, Ana L. Gomez, Lincoln A. Gotshalk, Noel D. Duncan, Jeff S. Volek, Robert U. Newton, Margot Putukian, and Wayne J. Sebastianelli
Prior investigations using ice, massage, or exercise have not shown efficacy in relieving delayed-onset muscle soreness.
To determine whether a compression sleeve worn immediately after maximal eccentric exercise enhances recovery.
Randomized, controlled clinical study.
University sports medicine laboratory.
Fifteen healthy, non-strength-trained men, matched for physical criteria, randomly placed in a control group or a continuous compression-sleeve group (CS).
Methods and Measures:
Subjects performed 2 sets of 50 arm curls. 1RM elbow flexion at 60°/s, upper-arm circumference, resting-elbow angle, serum creatine kinase (CK), and perception-of-soreness data were collected before exercise and for 3 days.
CK was significantly (P < .05) elevated from the baseline value in both groups, although the elevation in the CS group was less. CS prevented loss of elbow extension, decreased subjects’ perception of soreness, reduced swelling, and promoted recovery of force production.
Compression is important in soft-tissue-injury management.
William J. Kraemer, Ana L. Gómez, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jay R. Hoffman, Jeff S. Volek, Martyn R. Rubin, Timothy P. Scheett, Michael R. McGuigan, Duncan French, Jaci L. VanHeest, Robbin B. Wickham, Brandon Doan, Scott A. Mazzetti, Robert U. Newton, and Carl M. Maresh
To determine the effects of Vicoprofen®, ibuprofen, and placebo on anaerobic performance and pain relief after resistance-exercise-induced muscle damage.
Randomized, controlled clinical study.
University human-performance/sports-medicine laboratory.
36 healthy men.
Methods and Measures:
After baseline testing (72 h), participants performed an eccentric-exercise protocol. Each was evaluated for pain 24 h later and randomly assigned to a Vicoprofen (VIC), ibuprofen (IBU), or placebo (P) group. Postexercise testing was performed every 24 h for 4 d.
Significantly greater muscle force, power, and total work were observed in VIC than in P (P < .05) for most time points and for IBU at 48 h.
Anaerobic performance is enhanced with VIC, especially within the first 24 h after significant muscle-tissue damage. The greater performances observed at 48 h might be a result of less damage at this time point with VIC treatment.