This study examined the effect of vegetarianism on skeletal muscle total creatine (TCr) content and creatine transporter (CreaT) gene expression, prior to and during 5 d of Cr supplementation (CrS). In a double-blind, crossover design, 7 vegetarians (VEG) and nonvegetarians (NVEG) were assigned Cr or placebo supplements for 5 d and after 5 wk, received the alternative treatment. Muscle sampling occurred before, and after 1 and 5 d of treatment ingestion. Basal muscle TCr content was lower (P < 0.05) in VEG compared with NVEG. Muscle TCr increased (P < 0.05) throughout the Cr trial in both groups but was greater (P < 0.05) in VEG compared with NVEG, at days 1 and 5. CreaT gene expression was not different between VEG and NVEG. The results indicate that VEG have a lower muscle TCr content and an increased capacity to load Cr into muscle following CrS. Muscle CreaT gene expression does not appear to be affected by vegetarianism.
Kenneth K.O. Watt, Andrew P. Garnham and Rodney J. Snow
Gregory R. Cox, Rodney J. Snow and Louise M. Burke
The aim of this study was to investigate the prerace and during-race carbohydrate intakes of elite-level triathletes contesting draft-legal Olympic-distance triathlon (ODT) events. Self-reported prerace and during-race nutrition data were collected at 3 separate ODT events from 51 elite senior and under-23 triathletes. One hundred twenty-nine observations of food and fluid intake representing actual prerace (n = 62) and during-race (n = 67) nutrition practices from 36 male and 15 female triathletes were used in the final analysis of this study. Female triathletes consumed significantly more carbohydrate on the morning before race start when corrected for body mass and race start time than their male counterparts (p < .05). Male and female triathletes consumed 26% more energy (kJ/kg) and 24% more carbohydrate (g/kg) when commencing a race after midday (1:00–1:30 p.m.) than for a late morning (11:00–11:15 a.m.) race start. During the race, triathletes consumed less than 60 g of carbohydrate on 66% of occasions, with average total race intakes of 48 ± 25 and 49 ± 25 g carbohydrate for men and women, respectively. Given average race times of 1:57:07 hr and 2:08:12 hr, hourly carbohydrate intakes were ~25 g and ~23 g for men and women, respectively. Although most elite ODT triathletes consume sufficient carbohydrate to meet recommended prerace carbohydrate intake guidelines, during-race carbohydrate intakes varied considerably, with many failing to meet recommended levels.