The coronavirus pandemic required teachers to abruptly turn to online settings to deliver instruction. Unfortunately, evidence-based guidance for online instruction in the field of physical education is lacking, specifically for students with disabilities. Therefore, this scoping review sought to identify peer-reviewed literature addressing online learning in K–12 adapted physical education settings. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews extension for Scoping Reviews Checklist was used to guide this scoping review. A database search was conducted for relevant articles, and a data charting process was completed to identify articles meeting inclusion criteria. Five articles were determined to be within the scope of this review (one research article and four commentary articles). This scoping review highlighted a lack of literature pertaining to online learning in K–12 adapted physical education. Considering the likelihood of online learning becoming increasingly relevant, more concerted efforts are needed to investigate trends in these settings to determine best practices and how students with disabilities experience adapted physical education within an online setting.
Addressing Literature Gaps in Online Learning and Adapted Physical Education: A Scoping Review
Scott W.T. McNamara, Melissa Bittner, Heather Katz, and Kelly Hangauer
Content Acquisition Podcasts and Preservice Physical Educators’ Knowledge and Self-Efficacy Toward Teaching Students With Visual Impairments
Scott W.T. McNamara, Ali Brian, and Melissa Bittner
Identifying tools to reinforce content on teaching children with visual impairments (VI) is needed to better inform future physical educators as children with VI often have poor physical education (PE) experiences. Content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), podcasts created with instructional design principles and expert-developed content, may provide preservice PE teachers with knowledge and confidence needed to properly teach children with VI. The purpose of this investigation was to compare knowledge and self-efficacy differences from pre- to postintervention among a control group, a textbook chapter group, and a CAPs group. A knowledge and self-efficacy assessment was developed through a modified Delphi method. The CAPs participants showed significantly higher knowledge gains compared with other groups. The CAPs group revealed significantly higher self-efficacy gain when compared with the control but did not significantly differ from one another. The textbook group did not significantly differ from the control group. Implications for future research and suggestions for practitioners are discussed.
Educational Podcasts in Kinesiology: A Scoping Review
Scott W.T. McNamara, Matthew Shaw, Kylie Wilson, and Angela Cox
Educational podcasts are developed specifically for learning purposes. Preliminary research suggests that many college courses and practitioners regularly use educational podcasts and that this medium is a beneficial tool to use to supplement the learning process. However, there is limited scholarly work examining the use of educational podcasts within kinesiology fields. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review of the literature on the use of educational podcasts in the field of kinesiology. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews extension for Scoping Reviews Checklist guided this investigation. Six databases were searched. Fourteen articles met the full inclusion criteria. Of these, 11 were data-driven research articles, and three were practitioner articles. Much of the research identified lacked critical information related to research design, instrument development, and findings. Thus, the authors recommend that more rigorous research in this area be conducted to discern the impact of educational podcasts within the field of kinesiology.
Adapted Physical Educators’ Experiences With School Administration and Marginalization
Scott W.T. McNamara, Kevin Andrew Richards, Alyssa M. Trad, Sarena Abdallah, and Lauren Hill
Background: While preliminary research has indicated that adapted physical education (APE) teachers experience marginalization, little research has examined how specific relationships factor into these experiences. Purpose: This study sought to examine APE teachers’ experiences and perceptions of school administrators. Methodology: Occupational socialization theory was used to guide semistructured interviews with 24 APE teachers about their relationship with administrators. Results: A collaborative approach to qualitative data analysis was used to construct four themes: (a) APE teachers are socialized to be marginal and settle for inadequate support; (b) negative impressions of general physical education led to a similar outlook on APE; (c) administrators focus on compliance with mandates over quality practice in APE; and (d) support depends on administrative effort, and many administrators look uncomfortable in the gym. Conclusion: Although these findings shed light on the complex, and often absent, relationship between APE teachers and their administrators, still additional research is needed.
School Administrators’ Perspectives on and Support for Physical Education
Christopher J. Kinder, Scott W.T. McNamara, Amelia Mays Woods, Alexandra Mueller, Kacper Ryba, and Kevin Andrew Richards
Purpose: The socialization literature has identified the importance of school administrator support in physical education teachers’ work experiences. The purpose of this study was to understand how principals’ own socialization influences their perspectives on and support for physical education. Methods: Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 29 school principals (14 males and 15 females) and 15 physical educators (11 males and four females) matched at the schools from which principals were recruited. Results: Qualitative data analysis resulted in four intersecting themes: (a) Administrators’ prior socialization and subjective theories frame support for physical education; (b) supportive principals are visible, engage with their teachers, and hold them accountable; (c) stress is exacerbated when principals and physical educators’ values and beliefs differ; and (d) school and policy constraints influence administrators’ vision and support for physical education. Discussion and Conclusion: Educational leadership programs should consider preparing principals to support the work of physical education teachers.