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Open access

Kate Ridley and Timothy Olds

Background:

To improve the scope of the Youth Compendium of Energy Expenditures, a range of everyday activities of varying intensity should be measured. This study measures the energy cost of children undertaking common household chores, rollerblading and riding a foot-propelled scooter.

Methods:

Participants were 9- to 14-year-old children. A metabolic cart was used to measure oxygen cost (VO2) of a variety of household chores. A Cosmed K4b2 portable oxygen analyzer was used to measure VO2 during rollerblading and riding a scooter at self-selected speeds. Energy costs for each participant were calculated as child METs.

Results:

Mean child MET costs for the household chores ranged from 1.3 to 3.6 METs. Rollerblading and riding a scooter yielded mean child MET costs of 6.5 and 6.3 METs respectively.

Conclusions:

Household chores were found to be of light to moderate intensity, while rollerblading and riding a scooter were vigorous activities.

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Casey Jordan Mace, Ralph Maddison, Timothy Olds and Ngaire Kerse

Background:

The Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) is a computerized recall instrument that records use of time during 24 hr the previous day and has been developed to address limitations of current self-report physical activity measures for those in advanced age.

Methods:

Test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the adult MARCA were assessed in a sample of 45 advanced-age adults (age 84.9 SD ± 1.62 yr) as a subsample of the Life and Living in Advanced-Age Cohort Study New Zealand (LiLACS NZ). Test–retest methods required participants to recall the previous day’s activity using the MARCA twice within the same day. Convergent validity was assessed against accelerometry.

Results:

Test–retest reliability was high, with ICCs greater than .99 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity level (PAL). Compared with accelerometry, the MARCA demonstrated validity comparable to other self-report instruments with Spearman’s coefficients of .34 and .59 for time spent in nonsedentary physical activity and PAL.

Conclusion:

The MARCA is a valid and reliable self-report tool for physical activity behaviors in advanced-age adults.

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Grant R. Tomkinson, Michael J. Hamlin and Timothy S. Olds

Secular changes in anaerobic fitness test performance in healthy 6- to 17-year-old Australasians were examined by meta-analysis of 232,564 power- and speed-test performances between 1960 and 2002. Overall, power-test performance improved at a rate of +0.05% [95% confidence interval (CI) = +0.01% to +0.09%] per annum, and speed at +0.04% (CI = +0.02% to +0.06%) per annum. Results indicate that anaerobic-fitness-test performances have remained relatively stable in Australasian children and adolescents in recent decades.

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Erin Kaye Howie, Timothy Olds, Joanne A. McVeigh, Rebecca A. Abbott and Leon Straker

Background:

The detailed patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors of overweight and obese adolescents are unknown, but may be important for health outcomes and targeted intervention design.

Methods:

Participants completed Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP), an 8-week intervention with 12 months of maintenance intervention. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed at 6 time periods with accelerometers and were analyzed by 1) time and type of day, 2) intensity bout patterns using exposure variation analysis, and 3) individual case analysis.

Results:

Participants (n = 56) spent a lower percentage of time at baseline in light activity during school days compared with weekend days (24.4% vs 29.0%, P = .004). The majority of time was in long uninterrupted sedentary bouts of greater than 30 minutes (26.7% of total time, 36.8% of sedentary time at baseline). Moderate activity was accumulated in short bouts of less than 5 minutes (3.1% of total time, 76.0% moderate time). Changes varied by individuals.

Conclusions:

Exposure variation analysis revealed specific changes in activity patterns in overweight and obese adolescents who participated in a lifestyle intervention. A better understanding of these patterns can help to design interventions that meaningfully affect specific behaviors, with unique health consequences.

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Andrew N. Wilson, Timothy Olds, Kurt Lushington, Somayeh Parvazian and James Dollman

Purpose:

Brief classroom-based episodes of physical activity (active lesson breaks, ALBs) have improved schoolchildren’s classroom behaviors in some studies, and may also increase the likelihood of children meeting the recommended daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, there is emerging evidence that increases in physical activity at particular times of the day may lead to compensatory declines at other times. This study explored evidence for compensatory declines in response to a 10 min ALB during the school day.

Method:

Thirty-eight 12-year-old boys from a single elementary school completed intervention and control conditions in a cross-over design, with each phase lasting one week. The intervention consisted of a single 10-min active lesson break delivered on each of three days in the intervention week. Twenty-four hour accelerometry was used to quantify moderate and vigorous physical activity.

Results:

ALBs increased in-school MVPA by 5.8 min (p < .0001), but overall daily MVPA was similar between intervention and control conditions (77.2 vs 77.4 min/d, p > .05), However, vigorous physical activity increased significantly over the whole day (11.2 vs 8.9 min, p = .0006).

Conclusion:

A brief episode of classroom-based play led to a modest increase in vigorous physical activity in elementary school students, but did not increase MVPA across the day.

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Casey Mace, Ngaire Kerse, Ralph Maddison, Timothy Olds, Santosh Jatrana, Carol Wham, Mere Kepa, Anna Rolleston, Ruth Teh and Joanna Broad

Background:

Little is known about the physical activity levels and behaviors of advanced age New Zealanders.

Methods:

A cross-sectional analysis of data from Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ), Te Puāwaitanga O Nga Tapuwae Kia ora Tonu, measures of physical activity (PASE) (n = 664, aged 80–90 [n = 254, Māori, aged 82.5(2), n = 410 non-Māori, aged 85(.5)]) was conducted to determine physical activity level (PAL). A substudy (n = 45) was conducted to attain detailed information about PAL and behaviors via the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) and accelerometry. The main study was analyzed by sex for Māori and non-Māori.

Results:

Men consistently had higher levels of physical activity than women for all physical activity measures. Sex was significant for different domains of activity.

Open access

Natasha K. Schranz, Timothy Olds, Roslyn Boyd, John Evans, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Louise Hardy, Kylie Hesketh, David R. Lubans, Nicola D. Ridgers, Leon Straker, Stewart Vella, Jenny Ziviani and Grant R. Tomkinson

Background:

Two years on from the inaugural Active Healthy Kids Australia (AHKA) Physical Activity Report Card, there has been little to no change with the majority of Australian children still insufficiently active.

Methods:

The 2016 AHKA Report Card was developed using the best available national- and state-based physical activity data, which were evaluated by the AHKA Research Working Group using predetermined weighting criteria and benchmarks to assign letter grades to the 12 Report Card indicators.

Results:

In comparison with 2014, Overall Physical Activity Levels was again assigned a D- with Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation increasing to a B (was B-) and Active Transport declining to a C- (was C). The settings and sources of influence again performed well (A- to a C+), however Government Strategies and Investments saw a decline (C+ to a D). The traits associated with physical activity were also graded poorly (C- to a D).

Conclusions:

Australian youth are insufficiently active and engage in high levels of screen-based sedentary behaviors. While a range of support structures exist, Australia lacks an overarching National Physical Activity Plan that would unify the country and encourage the cultural shift needed to face the inactivity crisis head on.

Full access

Tiago V. Barreira, Stephanie T. Broyles, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Rebecca Kuriyan, Estelle V. Lambert, Carol A. Maher, José A. Maia, Timothy Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L. Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Mark S. Tremblay, Peter T. Katzmarzyk and for the ISCOLE Research Group

Background: To determine if children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time varied across levels of household income in countries at different levels of Human Development Index (HDI), consistent with the theory of epidemiological transition. Methods: Data from 6548 children (55% girls) aged 9–11 years from 12 countries at different HDI levels are used in this analysis to assess MVPA and sedentary time (measured using ActiGraph accelerometers) across levels of household income. Least-square means are estimated separately for boys and girls at the estimated 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of HDI for the sample. Results: For boys, time in MVPA is negatively associated with income at the 10th and 50th percentiles of HDI (both P < .002). For girls, time in MVPA is negatively associated with income at the 10th and 50th percentiles of HDI (all P < .01) and positively related with income at the 90th percentile (P = .04). Sedentary time is positively associated with income at the 10th percentile of HDI for boys (P = .03), but not for girls. Conclusions: Results support the possibility of an epidemiological transition in physical activity, with lower levels of MVPA observed at opposite levels of income depending on the HDI percentile. This phenomenon was not observed for sedentary time.