This study aimed to examine personal and social environmental correlates of the physical activity habit of middle-aged and older adults, using Chinese square dancing as a natural exploratory example. Participants were 385 adults aged ≥45 years (93% female), who habitually danced on squares or parks of three old districts of Guangzhou. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify personal, social, psychological, and behavioral correlates of multiyear dance. Old age, high education, sufficient leisure time, and stable social environmental factors were associated with persistent dancing, whereby education (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [1.05, 2.57]) and social engagement (RRR = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [1.05, 2.63]) showed the largest effects. Participants dancing ≤1 year were least satisfied with their social relationships than their counterparts dancing 1–5 years (RRR = 0.68) or over 5 years (RRR = 0.58). Physical activity promotion for older adults should adapt from culturally appropriate group activities and leverage community social resources to encourage voluntary participation, particularly for low-educated older women.