The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between television (TV) viewing and all-cause mortality in older adults with hypertension. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, hypertension, and other chronic diseases were assessed by face-to-face interviews and confirmed by medical history. Mortality was reported by relatives and confirmed in medical records of the National Health System. The fully adjusted model showed a direct association between high TV viewing time and all-cause mortality; hazard ratio: 1.65 (95% confidence interval [1.02–2.68]). Women with high TV viewing were more likely to die than men. Higher TV viewing time was associated with all-cause mortality among those with diabetes and hypertension; hazard ratio: 3.54 (95% confidence interval [1.64–7.66]). The findings from this longitudinal study show that higher TV viewing time is associated with higher risk for all-cause mortality among older adults with hypertension, independently of physical activity, and other potential confounders.
Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Steven N. Blair, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Jamile Sanches Codogno, and Henrique Luiz Monteiro
Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Stacy L. Fritz, Paul F. Beattie, Carl J. Lavie, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, and Steven N. Blair
Background: To investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality in men with musculoskeletal conditions. Methods: Participants were 12,728 men (mean age 47.0 [9.3] y) with a history of musculoskeletal conditions (including joint pain, low back pain, stiff joints, arthritis, osteoporosis, or gout) and were followed for all-cause mortality to December 31, 2003. Fitness was quantified by maximal treadmill exercise test and was categorized for analysis as low, moderate, and high performance. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Overall, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for mortality across incremental fitness categories were 1.00 (reference), 0.45 (0.30–0.68) and 0.35 (0.22–0.53), linear trend P < .01 for all-cause, 0.50 (0.23–1.10) and 0.29 (0.12–0.71), linear trend P = .02 for cardiovascular disease, and 0.38 (0.20–0.74) and 0.40 (0.20–0.80), linear trend P = .01 for cancer mortality. Conclusion: Among men with musculoskeletal conditions, higher fitness is associated with lower risk of death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, or any cause, independent of other risk factors.