The purpose of the study was to determine if preferences of athletes for training and instruction (task-oriented) behavior and social support (relationship-oriented) behavior would vary with athletic maturity (operationalized in terms of level of competition). Basketball players from high school midget (n = 67), junior (n = 63), and senior (n = 63) divisions and university (n = 69) completed the “preferred leader behavior” version of the Leadership Scale for Sports. Trend analyses revealed the presence of a quadratic trend in preference for training and instruction which progressively decreased from high school midget, through junior to senior levels and increased at the university level; however, the direction of this trend was opposite to that predicted. A linear trend was obtained for social support which progressively increased from the high school midget level to the university level but, again, it was in a direction opposite than that predicted. It was noted that future research should incorporate both a wide range of competition levels and groups with markedly different levels of success in order to determine the interrelationship between leadership preference and athletic maturity. It was also noted, however, that sport as a social system may not afford athletes an opportunity to achieve athletic maturity.
P. Chelladurai and A.V. Carron
Heather A. Hausenblas and Albert V. Carron
Research shows inconclusive results pertaining to the comparison of eating disorder indices between athletes and nonathletes and among different subgroups of athletes. The purpose of this study was to meta-analytically review the literature on (a) bulimia nervosa indices, (b) anorexia nervosa indices, and (c) drive for thinness (a cardinal feature of both anorexia and bulimia) in male and female athletes. Results of 92 studies with 560 effect sizes (ES) revealed small ESs (range: −.01 to .30) in relation to group membership characteristics. Results for female athletes revealed small ESs for bulimia and anorexia indices, suggesting that female athletes self-reported more bulimic and anorexic symptomatology than control groups; nonsignificant group differences were evidenced for drive for thinness. Results for male athletes revealed small ESs on all three indices, suggesting that male athletes self-reported more eating disorder symptomatology than control groups. Moderator variables that might contribute to understanding the results are examined, and future research directions are presented.
Heather A. Hausenblas and Albert V. Carron
There were two main purposes in the present study. The first was to identify the nature of the self-handicaps reported by elite female and male athletes (N = 245). School commitments and sport problems represented the most frequently cited impediments. Female athletes reported a significantly greater number of disruptions and had a greater tendency to report that sport problems, physical state/illness, and family/friend problems hindered their preparation. The second purpose was to determine whether cohesion would moderate the extent to which athletes would use self-handicapping strategies prior to competition. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that cohesion was a moderator in the relationship between the trait of self-handicapping (Excuse Making) and the use of self-handicapping for both female and male elite athletes. Results of post hoc analyses indicated that athletes who were highly predisposed to self-handicap and who perceived their group as more cohesive, had a greater tendency to proactively perceive impediments to subsequent performance.
Paul A. Estabrooks and Albert V. Carron
The study examined the relative influence of 2 forms of task cohesion on older adult exercisers’ (N = 82) self-efficacy to schedule exercise into their weekly routine. Participants had been involved with the exercise program for at least 4 months before the study began. A sequencing protocol was used to allow for task cohesion’s influence on scheduling self-efficacy. Task cohesion, as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire, was assessed during the 1st week of exercise classes after a holiday. Scheduling self-efficacy was assessed at midprogram. Attractions to the group-task and group-integration-task cohesion were sequentially entered into a hierarchical regression analysis while recent attendance was controlled for. Results showed individual attractions to the group task accounted for most of the variance in scheduling self-efficacy. R 2 = .10, F(2,80) = 4.22,p = .02; the addition of group-integration task also significantly (p < .05) added variance. R 2 = .13. F(3, 79) = 3.79, p = .01.
A.V. Carron, W.N. Widmeyer, and L.R. Brawley
The purpose of this paper was fourfold. The first purpose was to demonstrate the need to develop an instrument to assess group cohesion while the second was to outline a conceptual model of group cohesion upon which such an instrument could be based. This model reflected four related constructs which were the a priori basis for developing a large item pool and initial versions of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). The third purpose was to outline the four projects conducted to obtain construct-related information and to develop an initial version of the GEQ. The final purpose was to outline the two reliability and validity studies conducted with two different sport team samples. The results of these studies revealed that an 18-item version of the GEQ was internally consistent, reliable across studies, and content valid. Factor analyses with oblique rotation revealed preliminary evidence for construct validity. The GEQ is comprised of four scales reflecting the constructs of group integration-task, group integration-social, individual attractions to group-task, and individual attractions to group-social.
Albert V. Carron, Heather A. Hausenblas, and Diane Mack
Albert V. Carron, Heather A. Hausenblas, and Diane Mack
Using meta-analysis, the impact of a number of manifestations of social influence (important others, family, class leaders, coexercisers, social cohesion, and task cohesion) on exercise behaviors (adherence and compliance), cognitions (intentions and efficacy), and affect (satisfaction and attitude) was examined. The results showed that social influence generally has a small to moderate positive effect (i.e., effect size [ES] from .20 to .50). However, four moderate to large effect sizes (i.e., ES from .50 to .80) were found: family support and attitudes about exercise, task cohesion and adherence behavior, important others and attitudes about exercise, and family support and compliance behavior.
Heather A. Hausenblas, Albert V. Carron, and Diane E. Mack
The primary purpose of this study was to use meta-analysis to statistically examine the utility of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for the explanation and prediction of exercise behavior. The results showed that the effect size for the relationships (a) between intention and exercise behavior, attitude and intention, attitude and exercise behavior, perceived behavioral control and intention, and perceived behavioral control and exercise behavior was large; (b) between subjective norm and intention was moderate; and (c) between subjective norm and exercise behavior was zero-order. The results also supported the conclusions that (a) TPB is superior to TRA in accounting for exercise behavior, (b) there is no differences in the ability to predict exercise behavior from proximal and distal measures of intention, and (c) expectation is a better predictor of exercise behavior than intention.
Mark A. Eys, James Hardy, Albert V. Carron, and Mark R. Beauchamp
The general purpose of the present study was to determine if perceptions of team cohesion are related to the interpretation athletes attach to their precompetition anxiety. Specifically examined was the association between athlete perceptions of task cohesiveness (Individual Attractions to the Group– Task, ATG-T, and Group Integration–Task, GI-T) and the degree to which perceptions of the intensity of precompetition anxiety symptoms (cognitive and somatic) were viewed as facilitative versus debilitative. Participants were athletes (N = 392) from the sports of soccer, rugby, and field hockey. Each athlete completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) after a practice session. A directionally modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990) was completed just prior to a competition. Results showed that athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of both ATG-T and GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 260) = 8.96, p < .05, than athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as debilitative. Also, athletes who perceived their somatic anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 249) = 5.85, p < .05.
Mark R. Beauchamp, Steven R. Bray, Mark A. Eys, and Albert V. Carron
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between role ambiguity and precompetition state anxiety (A-state). Consistent with multidimensional anxiety theory (Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990), it was hypothesized that role ambiguity would be positively related to cognitive but not to somatic A-state. Based on the conceptual model presented by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys, and Carron (2002), role ambiguity in sport was operationalized as a multidimensional construct (i.e., scope of responsibilities, role behaviors, role evaluation, and role consequences) potentially manifested in each of two contexts, offense and defense. Consistent with hypotheses, ambiguity in terms of the scope of offensive role responsibilities predicted cognitive A-state (R 2 = .19). However, contrary to hypotheses, offensive role-consequences ambiguity also predicted somatic A-state (R 2 = .09). Results highlight the importance of using a multidimensional approach to investigate role ambiguity in sport and are discussed in terms of both theory advancement and possible interventions.