The current study sought to trace the origin of gender disparity in the coaching landscape from student-athletes’ perceptions, framed through Social Cognitive Career Theory. To examine the cognitive-person variables in line with previous coaching and SCCT research, scales were derived for perceived social supports and barriers, perceptions of positive and negative outcome expectations, and perceived self-efficacy in coaching. Student-athletes were randomly selected online from 23 institutions across three Bowl Championship Series conferences, while data were coded into a MANCOVA. Results indicated male student-athletes reported greater levels for perceived barriers to enter the coaching profession, perceptions of positive outcome expectations, and for coaching self-efficacy than did their female counterparts. These findings suggest that gender differences within the college coaching profession may be, in part, due to perceptions formed before entry.
Brent D. Oja, Henry T. Wear and Aaron W. Clopton
To better understand the intangible impacts on host communities of major sport events, the psychic income of local residents was examined. In addition, social anchor theory was applied to potentially better explain the lasting intangible benefits of hosting the event. The impetus of the study came from the 2012 Major League Baseball All-Star Game, held in Kansas City, MO. Data were collected from local community organizations before and after the event. The results suggest that some components of psychic income dissipated after the event, whereas other components did not significantly change. Furthermore, social capital increased, but neighborhood identity decreased after the event. As such, the event as a social anchor was unable to sustain residents’ psychic income after the event. Potential limitations and future research directions are also offered.