The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Perceived Movement Skill Competence scales for Iranian children. In particular, the scales aligned with the second and third versions of the Test of Gross Motor Development and the active play skills. The total sample was 314 children aged 4–8 years (M age = 6.1 years, SD = 1.1). From this, a random sample of 74 were recruited for face validity. The data from the remaining 240 children were used to establish construct validity using Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling. The data from a second random subsample of 126 children were used to investigate Perceived Movement Skill Competence reliability using ordinal alpha coefficients and intraclass correlations coefficients. The majority of children correctly identified the skills and understood most of the pictures. Internal consistency was very good (from 0.81 to 0.95) for all scales and subscales. Test–retest reliability was excellent with intraclass correlation coefficient values above .85. For construct validity, the initial hypothesized models for three-factor (i.e., locomotor, object control, and play skills) and two-factor (i.e., locomotor and object control) models showed a reasonable fit. The pictorial scales for Perceived Movement Skill Competence are valid and reliable for Iranian young children.
Marziyeh Arman, Lisa M. Barnett, Steven J. Bowe, Abbas Bahram, and Anoshirvan Kazemnejad
Farzad Mohammadi, Abbas Bahram, Hasan Khalaji, Dale A. Ulrich, and Farhad Ghadiri
The Test of Gross Motor Development–3rd Edition (TGMD-3) is an instrument for measuring gross motor development in children with and without a disability. This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the TGMD-3 in 3- to 10-year-old Iranian children. The TGMD-3 was administered to 1,600 children (M age = 6.56 ± 2.29 years; 50% boys). The content validity of the TGMD-3 was established by five experts while its reliability was assessed through calculating internal consistency, test–retest, intra-rater, and inter-rater reliability coefficients. All reliability indices were excellent (>.82). The two-factor model was validated using confirmatory factor analysis. Adequate fit indices were found for the two-factor model (χ2 (64) = 389.02, p < .05, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .056, goodnesss of fit index (GFI) = .96, adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) = .94, normed fit index (NFI) = .96, non-normed fit index (NNFI) = .96, comparative fit index (CFI) = .96, incremental fit index (IFI) = .96, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = .03). An alternative one-factor model was also tested. Adequate fit indices in a one-factor model were found (χ2 (65) = 615.88, p = .0001, RMSEA = .07, GFI = .94, AGFI = .92, NFI = .98, NNFI = .98, CFI = .98, IFI = .98, SRMR = .03). The psychometric properties of the Persian version of TGMD-3 in Iranian children were supported and users can confidently use this test to evaluate gross motor development in Iranian children.
Faezeh Mohammadi Sanjani, Abbas Bahram, Moslem Bahmani, Mina Arvin, and John van der Kamp
It has been shown that texting degrades driving performance, but the extent to which this is mediated by the driver’s age and postural stability has not been addressed. Hence, the present study examined the effects of texting, sitting surface stability, and balance training in young and older adults’ driving performance. Fifteen young (mean age = 24.3 years) and 13 older (mean age = 62.8 years) participants were tested in a driving simulator with and without texting on a smartphone and while sitting on a stable or unstable surface (i.e., a plastic wobble board), before and after a 30-min sitting balance training. Analyses of variance showed that texting deteriorated driving performance but irrespective of sitting surface stability. Balance training decreased the negative effects of texting on driving, especially in older adults. Perceived workload increased when drivers were texting, and balance training reduced perceived workload. Perceived workload was higher while sitting on the unstable surface, but less so after balance training. Path analyses showed that the effects on driving performance and perceived workload were (indirectly) associated with changes in postural stability (i.e., postural sway). The study confirms that texting threatens safe driving performance by challenging postural stability, especially in older adults. The study also suggests that it is important to further investigate the role balance training can play in reducing these negative effects of texting.