First rib subluxation is one possible cause of neck, shoulder, and arm pain. The anatomy and biomechanics of the first rib contribute to its tendency to sublux superiorly. Management of first rib subluxation may include manipulative therapy, therapeutic exercises, pharmaceutical agents, and physical modalities to correct joint dysfunction, decrease soft tissue tension, and prevent recurrence.
Abdulazeem Kamkar, Candice Cardi-Laurent and Susan L. Whitney
Susan L. Whitney, Larry Mattocks, James J. Irrgang, Pamela A. Gentile, David Pezzullo and Abdulazeem Kamkar
The purpose of this two-part study was to determine if lower extremity girth measurements are repeatable. Sixteen males and 14 females participated in the intra- and intertester reliability portion of this study. Girth was assessed at five different lower extremity sites by two physical therapists using a standard tape measure. Thirty measures (15 by each examiner) were collected on the subject's right leg, and a mean of the three measures was used in the analysis. The measurements were repeated 7 days later. It was found that by using a simple standardized procedure, girth measurements in the clinic can be highly repeatable in experienced clinicians. Part 2 of the study involved testing the right and left legs of 22 subjects to determine if girth of the right and left legs was similar. All subjects had their girth assessed at five sites on their right and left legs during one session. It was found that girth measures on the right and left lower extremities are comparable. In an acutely injured lower extremity, it might be assumed that the girth of both lower extremities is similar.