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  • Author: Adewale L. Oyeyemi x
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Babatunde O.A. Adegoke and Adewale L. Oyeyemi

Background:

This study assessed the prevalence of physical inactivity and the influence of sociodemographic variables on physical activity categories, highlighting the correlates of physical inactivity in Nigerian young adults.

Methods:

A representative sample of young adults age 16 to 39 years (n = 1006) from a Nigerian University were categorized using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire as physically inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Prevalence rates were computed for the activity categories and the independent associations of sociodemographic correlates on each category were determined using the multinomial logistic regression.

Results:

Physical inactivity prevalence was 41%. More likely to be inactive were females (OR = 1.93; CI: 1.49−2.49), those of Hausa ethnicity (OR = 2.29; CI: 1.08−5.84), having BMI > 30 kg/m2 (OR = 2.88; CI: 1.16−7.17), and those whose parents’ annual income was < 180,000 NAIRA (OR = 1.69; CI: 1.04−2.95). Less likely to be moderately active were females (OR = 0.71; CI: 0.61−0.95), those with BMI between 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 (OR = 0.46; CI: 0.23−0.92), and those of Hausa ethnicity (OR = 0.17; CI: 0.04−0.74).

Conclusion:

Important sociodemographic variables that can contribute to the preliminary analysis of correlates of physical inactivity among Nigerian young adults were identified.

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Adewale L. Oyeyemi, James F. Sallis, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi, Mariam M. Amin, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij and Benedicte Deforche

Background:

This study adapted the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (PANES) to the Nigerian context and assessed the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Nigerian version (PANES-N).

Methods:

A multidisciplinary panel of experts adapted the original PANES to reflect the built and social environment of Nigeria. The adapted PANES was subjected to cognitive testing and test retest reliability in a diverse sample of Nigerian adults (N = 132) from different neighborhood types. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) was used to assess test-retest reliability, and construct validity was investigated with Analysis of Covariance for differences in environmental attributes between neighborhoods.

Results:

Four of the 17 items on the original PANES were significantly modified, 3 were removed and 2 new items were incorporated into the final version of adapted PANES-N. Test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect (ICC = 0.62–1.00) for all items on the PANES-N, and residents of neighborhoods in the inner city reported higher residential density, land use mix and safety, but lower pedestrian facilities and aesthetics than did residents of government reserved area/new layout neighborhoods.

Conclusion:

The PANES-N appears promising for assessing environmental perceptions related to physical activity in Nigeria, but further testing is required to assess its applicability across Africa.

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Ade F. Adeniyi, Olukemi O. Odukoya, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Rufus A. Adedoyin, Olatunde S. Ojo, Edirin Metseagharun and Kingsley K. Akinroye

Background:

The Nigerian Report card on Physical Activity (PA) in Children and Youth was first developed in 2013 to inform practice and policy on healthy living and prevention of noncommunicable diseases among Nigerian children and youth. This article summarizes the results of the 2016 report card and provides updated evidence on the current situation in Nigeria.

Methods:

A comprehensive review of literature was undertaken by the Report Card Working Group. Grades were assigned to 10 PA indicators based on the criteria used for the 2013 edition.

Results:

Grades assigned to the indicators were Overall PA, D; Active Play and Leisure, C; Active Transportation, B; Sedentary Behaviors (screen-based, F and nonscreen-based, D); Overweight and Obesity, A; PA in Schools, C-; Government/Nongovernment Organizations/Private Sector/Policy, B. The following indicators were graded as Incomplete: Organized Sport and PA, Community and Built Environment, and Family and Peers.

Conclusions:

The overall PA levels of Nigerian children and youth seemed to be declining compared with the 2013 Report card but with slight improvement in active play and leisure, and PA in school settings. A substantial number of Nigerian children and youth still have high sedentary behaviors, overweight and obesity. Efforts are needed to promote PA among them.

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André O. Werneck, Evelyn C.A. Silva, Maria R.O. Bueno, Lidyane Z. Vignadelli, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Catiana L.P. Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque and Marcelo Romanzini

Purpose: To investigate the association between patterns of sedentary behavior and obesity indicators among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 389 adolescents (186 boys) aged 10–14 years. Body mass index, body fat (skinfolds), and waist circumference were adopted as outcomes. Sedentary behavior patterns (total time, bouts, and breaks) measured through accelerometry (GT3X and GT3X+; ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL) were adopted as exposures. Peak height velocity, moderate to vigorous physical activity (accelerometer), cardiorespiratory fitness (Léger test), sex, and chronological age were adopted as covariates. Linear regression models adjusted for covariates were used to determine associations between outcome and exposure variables. Results: The mean age of adolescents was 11.8 (0.7) years. Boys were more active than girls (P < .001). Accumulating shorter bouts (1–4 min) of sedentary behavior was negatively associated with body mass index (β = −0.050; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.098 to −0.003) and waist circumference (β = −0.133; 95% CI, −0.237 to −0.028). Similarly, a higher number of breaks in sedentary behavior were negatively associated with body mass index (β = −0.160; 95% CI, −0.319 to −0.001) and waist circumference (β = −0.412; 95% CI, −0.761 to −0.064). Conclusion: Shorter bouts of sedentary behavior (1–4 min) and a higher number of breaks of sedentary behavior were associated with lower adiposity. Our findings also suggest that breaking up sedentary time to ensure bouts of sedentary behavior are short might contribute to the prevention of obesity in adolescents.

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Kingsley K. Akinroye, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Oluwakemi O. Odukoya, Ade F. Adeniyi, Rufus A. Adedoyin, Olatunde S. Ojo, Damilola A. Alawode, Ebenezer A. Ozomata and Taofeek O. Awotidebe

Background:

Physical activity (PA) promotion in children and youth is an impetus for prevention and control of NCD morbidity and mortality, but evidence is needed for effective interventions. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the results of the 2013 Nigerian Report Card on Physical Activity for children and youth.

Methods:

The Technical Report Committee conducted a comprehensive review of available literature in Nigeria. Grades were assigned to 10 PA indicators modeled after the Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) grading system.

Results:

Specific grades were assigned for several indicators: Overall Physical Activity Levels, C; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation, Incomplete; Active Play and Leisure, C-; Active Transportation, B; Sedentary Behaviors, F; Overweight and Obesity, B+. The following indicators were graded as INCOMPLETE: Physical Activity in School setting, Family and Peers, Community and Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments.

Conclusions:

PA levels of Nigerian children and youth are moderate while sedentary behaviors are high. The development of national guidelines for PA and sedentary behaviors can better inform policy and practice on healthy living among Nigerian children and youth.

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André O. Werneck, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Marcelo Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque, Edilson S. Cyrino, Luís B. Sardinha and Danilo R. Silva

Background: This study aims to describe the regional prevalence and patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior among Brazilian adolescents. Methods: Data from the Brazilian Scholar Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of ninth-grade adolescents [mean age: 14.29 y (14.27–14.29)] conducted in 2015 (n = 101,445), were used. Outcomes were television viewing, sitting time (ST), total PA, and active traveling collected via self-administered questionnaire. Information on frequency of physical education classes and type of school was collected from the school’s director. Frequencies with 95% confidence intervals were used to determine the prevalence and patterns of outcomes. Results: Higher prevalence of PA (≥300 min/wk) and ST (>4 h/d) was found in Midwest (PA = 38.0%; ST = 44.5%), South (PA = 37.6%; ST = 50.1%), and Southeast (PA = 36.1%; ST = 49.3%) compared with Northeast (PA = 29.7%; ST = 36.9%) and North (PA = 34.4%; ST = 34.8%) regions of Brazil. ST was higher among adolescents from private schools (51.5%) than public schools (42.9%), whereas active traveling was greater among students of public schools than private schools (62.0% vs 34.4%). Most inequalities in outcomes between capital and interior cities were in the poorest regions. Conclusions: The results indicate that national plans targeting regional inequalities are needed to improve PA and to reduce sedentary behavior among Brazilian adolescents.

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, James F. Sallis, Justine Nabanoba, David Basangwa, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Sandra S. Kasoma, Marc De Hert, Inez Myin-Germeys and James Mugisha

Background: This study investigated whether reported neighborhood variables explained variance in time spent walking, exercising, and being sedentary, in addition to mental health and demographic variables among Ugandan outpatients with mental illness. Methods: Ninety-nine outpatients (78 men; 31.1 [8.6] y) of the Butabika National Referral Hospital in Uganda completed the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Africa, the Simple Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the Brief Symptoms Inventory-18. Multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: Seven percent of the variance in walking time was explained by the variance in anxiety/depression and an additional 13% by the variance in perceived mixed land use and the availability of roads and walking paths. Eight percent of the variance in exercise time was explained by variance in age and an additional 6% by the variance anxiety/depression. The availability of recreational space added 8%. Six percent of variance in time spent sedentary was explained by family income, while availability of roads and walking paths added another 6%. Conclusions: This study shows the relevance of availability of roads and walking paths and recreational space for more physical activity and less sedentary behavior in people with mental illness. This is particularly relevant in low-income countries where a rapid urbanization is taking place.