Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 39 items for

  • Author: Adrian Bauman x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Adrian Bauman and Josephine Chau

Background:

This paper reviewed a) mass media campaigns and b) ‘new media’ interventions to promote physical activity. They are different kinds of interventions, with campaigns being mass-reach communications efforts to increase population awareness of physical activity. ‘New media’ interventions assess the impact of web-based, internet, other ’new media’ and e-mail-delivered interventions to increase physical activity.

Methods:

Previous reviews of mass media campaigns and ‘new media’ interventions were assessed, and more recent peer-reviewed publications identified using routine electronic databases. For each area, a framework for interventions was described, and evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions, the main outcomes of interest, and methodological strengths and weaknesses were identified.

Key recommendations:

For mass media campaigns, key recommendations were to use consistent and well-branded messages, and for campaigns to be integrated across local, State and national levels, with sufficient resources to purchase sufficient media. Mass media campaigns should be subject to rigorous formative, process and impact evaluation. For ‘new media’ interventions, there is clear evidence of effectiveness, but efforts should be made to increase the reach and generalizability of these interventions. They should be provided as a low cost component of integrated communitywide physical activity programs.

Restricted access

Niamh M. Murphy and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Large-scale, one-off sporting or physical activity (PA) events are often thought to impact population PA levels. This article reviews the evidence and explores the nature of the effect.

Methods:

A search of the published and grey literature was conducted to July 2005 using relevant databases, web sources, and personal contacts. Impacts are described at the individual, societal and community, and environmental levels.

Results:

Few quality evaluations have been conducted. While mass sporting events appear to influence PA-related infrastructure, there is scant evidence of impact on individual participation at the population level. There is some evidence that events promoting active transport can positively affect PA.

Conclusions:

The public health potential of major sporting and PA events is often cited, but evidence for public health benefit is lacking. An evaluation framework is proposed.

Restricted access

Adrian E. Bauman, Niamh Murphy and Victor Matsudo

Restricted access

Binh Nguyen, Adrian Bauman and Ding Ding

Purpose:

To examine the combined effects of body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA) and sitting on incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Australian adults.

Methods:

A sample of 29,572 adults aged ≥45 years from New South Wales, Australia, completed baseline (2006–2008) and follow-up (2010) questionnaires. Incident T2DM was defined as self-reported, physician-diagnosed diabetes at follow-up. BMI was categorized as normal/overweight/obese. PA was tertiled into low/medium/ high. Sitting was dichotomized as higher/lower sitting (≥ 8 hours/day or < 8 hours/day). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated for developing T2DM using logistics regression for individual and combined risk factors, and data stratified by BMI categories.

Results:

During a mean 2.7 (SD: 0.9) years of follow-up, 611 (2.1%) participants developed T2DM. In fully adjusted models, BMI was the only independent risk factor for incident T2DM. In stratified analyses, the association between BMI and T2DM did not differ significantly across sitting or PA categories. Overweight/obese individuals with high PA and lower sitting had higher odds of incident T2DM than normal counterparts with low PA and higher sitting.

Conclusions:

High PA/low sitting did not attenuate the risk of T2DM associated with overweight/obesity. Maintaining a healthy weight, by adopting healthy lifestyle behaviors, is critical for T2DM prevention.

Restricted access

Barry Lambe, Niamh Murphy and Adrian Bauman

Background:

There is a paucity of intervention studies assessing active travel to school as a mechanism to increase physical activity. This paper describes the impact of a community-wide intervention on active travel to primary schools in 2 Irish towns.

Methods:

This was a repeat cross-sectional study of a natural experiment. Self-report questionnaires were completed by 5th and 6th grade students in 3 towns (n = 1038 students in 2 intervention towns; n = 419 students in 1 control town) at baseline and by a new group of students 2 years later at follow-up. The absolute change in the proportion of children walking and cycling to school (difference in differences) was calculated.

Results:

There was no overall intervention effect detected for active travel to or from school. This is despite an absolute increase of 14.7% (1.6, 27.9) in the proportion of children that indicated a preference for active travel to school in the town with the most intensive intervention (town 2).

Conclusions:

Interventions designed to increase active travel to school hold some promise but should have a high-intensity mix of infrastructural and behavioral measures, be gender-specific, address car dependency and focus on travel home from school initially.

Restricted access

Michael L. Booth, Adrian Bauman and Neville Owen

In a cross-sectional survey, older Australians (N = 402) were asked to report their physical activity habits and the 3 main barriers to more physical activity. Active and inactive men and women differed only in how many reported being sufficiently active or that their health was too poor to be more active. Six barriers were reported by more than 10% of inactive men and women: “already active enough,” “have an injury or disability,” “poor health,” “too old,” “don't have enough time,” and “I'm not the sporty type.” Insufficient time was identified by significantly fewer respondents as age increased. More respondents 65–70+ years old identified poor health as a barrier than did those 60–64. The proportion who had an injury or disability decreased from 60–64 to 65–69 and increased markedly among those 70+. Programs for older adults should take into account the age of the target group and the limitations imposed by poor health or disability.

Restricted access

Katie M. Heinrich, Jay Maddock and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Despite clear health benefits of physical activity, previous research has been limited in linking knowledge of physical activity recommendations to actual behavior.

Methods:

Using Expectancy Theory, we examined whether an individual’s health outcome expectancies from physical activity might provide the missing link between knowledge and behavior. With data from a cross-sectional survey, we assessed differences between how much moderate physical activity people thought they needed for health benefits compared with what they thought experts recommended and the relationship of these differences to physical activity behaviors.

Results:

Our hypothesis that people with positive health outcome expectancies would report more minutes of physical activity than those with neutral or negative health outcome expectancies was supported for all self-reported physical activity behaviors (P < .001).

Conclusions:

It appears that the health outcome expectancy of needing more physical activity than recommended by experts is correlated with achieving more physical activity, regardless of type. Future research should address health outcome expectancies as a way to impact physical activity.

Restricted access

Adrian E. Bauman and Harold W. Kohl III

Restricted access

Dafna Merom, Heather Bowles and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Walking is the most prevalent form of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Advances in measurement of walking depend on understanding sources of error in self report. We examined the effect of prompting “walking for exercise, recreation, and sport” (WERS) upon surveillance estimates of LTPA and assessed what types of walking were recalled when reporting LTPA generally and when WERS was prompted specifically.

Methods:

Data were collected by telephone survey from a random sample of 3,415 Australian adults (≥15yrs). Respondents were asked first to recall any type of LTPA they participated in (unprompted) and if walking was not mentioned, WERS was prompted. All walkers were asked to describe the type of walking they did. Open-ended responses were categorized according to physical activity measurement dimensions.

Results:

Forty three percent did not report WERS unless prompted to do so. The prevalence of meeting recommendations by all LTPA was reduced by 10% for both genders and across all age groups if not prompted to recall WERS. The interpretation of WERS was broad and included travel related walking and dog walking whether unprompted or prompted.

Conclusions:

Current challenges in walking surveillance include ensuring that both researchers and respondents understand WERS in a standardized manner.

Restricted access

Elizabeth G. Eakin, Ben J. Smith and Adrian E. Bauman

Background:

This article evaluates the extent to which the literature on primary care-based physical activity interventions informs the translation of research into practice and identifies priorities for future research.

Methods:

Relevant databases were searched for: (1) descriptive studies of physician barriers to physical activity counseling (n = 8), and (2) reviews of the literature on primary care-based physical activity intervention studies (n = 9). The RE-AIM framework was used to guide the evaluation.

Results:

Lack of time, limited patient receptiveness, lack of remuneration, and limited counseling skills are the predominant barriers to physical activity counselling. Issues of internal validity (i.e., effectiveness and implementation) have received much more attention in the literature than have issues of external validity (i.e., reach and adoption).

Conclusions:

The research agenda for primary care-based physical activity interventions needs greater attention to the feasibility of adoption by busy primary care staff, generalizability, and dissemination.