Background: Sport New Zealand conducts continuous representative “Active NZ” surveys. Between 2019 and 2020 (n = 13,887), these surveys asked International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)—long-form questions, the single-item days (SI-days) per week question, and 1 question on hours per week (single-item hours [SI-hours] per week). This study examines relationships between the established SI-days question and meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines (150 min moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week from SI-hours question and IPAQ). Methods: Analyses were descriptive, and the best fit between SI-days and the PA thresholds was estimated using area under the receiver operator characteristic curves and Youden index. Results: Using SI-hours, 60.6% achieved 150+ minutes; 85.2% reported the IPAQ-total minimum threshold, and 40.8% met the IPAQ-leisure time PA-only threshold. Receiver operator characteristic analyses showed area under the curve values with IPAQ between 0.63 and 0.76, but the SI-days showed a very good area under the curve of 0.82 (0.81–0.83) with the SI-hours 150-minute threshold. Youden index suggested the best fit was at 3+ days per week for maximizing Sensitivity and Specificity to meet IPAQ or SI-hours-defined PA guidelines. Discussion: The SI-days per week question reflects achieving PA guidelines, and the best fit was with the SI-hours per week question. This provides surveillance-relevant concurrent validity for the SI-days measure, but the cut point for broadly meeting guidelines appears to be at least 3 days per week, not 5 days per week as previously thought.
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Adrian E. Bauman and Justin A. Richards
Adrian E. Bauman and Harold W. Kohl III
Adrian E. Bauman, Niamh Murphy, and Victor Matsudo
Elizabeth G. Eakin, Ben J. Smith, and Adrian E. Bauman
This article evaluates the extent to which the literature on primary care-based physical activity interventions informs the translation of research into practice and identifies priorities for future research.
Relevant databases were searched for: (1) descriptive studies of physician barriers to physical activity counseling (n = 8), and (2) reviews of the literature on primary care-based physical activity intervention studies (n = 9). The RE-AIM framework was used to guide the evaluation.
Lack of time, limited patient receptiveness, lack of remuneration, and limited counseling skills are the predominant barriers to physical activity counselling. Issues of internal validity (i.e., effectiveness and implementation) have received much more attention in the literature than have issues of external validity (i.e., reach and adoption).
The research agenda for primary care-based physical activity interventions needs greater attention to the feasibility of adoption by busy primary care staff, generalizability, and dissemination.
Ding Ding, Klaus Gebel, Becky Freeman, and Adrian E. Bauman
Media reporting of published research findings can increase the profile and reach of new scientific findings. Dissemination is an important part of research, and media reporting can catalyze this process. In many areas, including health-related research, policymakers often rely on the media for information and guidance. Furthermore, media reports can influence the scientific community and clinicians.1·2 However, despite the potential beneficial role as a bridge between scientists and the public, misleading information can cause controversy, confusion, and even harm.3
Ross E. Andersen, Adrian E. Bauman, Shawn C. Franckowiak, Sue M. Reilley, and Alison L. Marshall
This intervention promoted stair use among people attending the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) annual meeting.
All attendees using the stairs or escalators in the main lobby were unobtrusively observed for 3 days and coded for activity choices to get to the second floor. During day 2, a prominent sign stating “Be a role model. Use the stairs!” encouraged point-of-choice decisions favoring stairs over the escalator. The sign was removed on day 3.
16,978 observations were made. Stair use increased from 22.0% on day 1 to 29.3% and 26.8% on days 2 and 3, respectively (P values < .001). Active choices (stair use or walk up escalator) increased from 28.3% on day 1 to 40.1% and 40.2% on subsequent days. Analyses were similar after adjustment for gender, estimated age category, and race.
Relatively few conference attendees were persuaded to model stair-use behavior. Health professionals should be encouraged to be “active living” role models.
Dori E. Rosenberg, Fiona C. Bull, Alison L. Marshall, James F. Sallis, and Adrian E. Bauman
This study explored definitions of sedentary behavior and examined the relationship between sitting time and physical inactivity using the sitting items from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).
Participants (N = 289, 44.6% male, mean age = 35.93) from 3 countries completed self-administered long- and short-IPAQ sitting items. Participants wore accelero-meters; were classified as inactive (no leisure-time activity), insufficiently active, or meeting recommendations; and were classified into tertiles of sitting behavior.
Reliability of sitting time was acceptable for men and women. Correlations between total sitting and accelerometer counts/min <100 were significant for both long (r = .33) and short (r = .34) forms. There was no agreement between tertiles of sitting and the inactivity category (kappa = .02, P = .68).
Sedentary behavior should be explicitly measured in population surveillance and research instead of being defined by lack of physical activity.
Michael L. Booth, Anthony D. Okely, Tien Chey, and Adrian E. Bauman
This study examined the pattern of activity energy expenditure (AEE) among New South Wales (NSW) high school students in relation to age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), place of residence, cultural background, season, participation in moderate- and vigorous-intensity and in organized and non-organized physical activity.
Cross-sectional survey of a randomly-selected sample (N = 2026). Respondents self-reported their physical activity participation during a usual week in summer and winter.
Boys reported greater AEE than girls and, whereas AEE was greater among grade 10 than grade 8 boys, the reverse was true for girls. Boys reported the same AEE for summer and winter, but girls reported less AEE during winter. Both boys and girls reported spending the same proportion of their AEE in vigorous-intensity (72%) compared with moderate-intensity activity (28%) and in non-organized (60%) compared with organized activity. There was no clear association between urban/rural place of residence and AEE. Although AEE tended to be positively associated with SES among girls, there was no association among boys. Girls from Asian cultural backgrounds reported much lower AEE than girls from other cultural backgrounds.
Patterns of energy expenditure among adolescent boys and girls should be considered in developing interventions to ensure needs are adequately met.
Hayley E. Christian, Carri Westgarth, Adrian Bauman, Elizabeth A. Richards, Ryan E. Rhodes, Kelly R. Evenson, Joni A. Mayer, and Roland J. Thorpe Jr.
Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to nondog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research.
A review of published studies (1990−2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was conducted (N = 29). Studies estimating the relationship between dog ownership and PA were grouped to create a pointestimate using meta-analysis.
Most studies were conducted in the last 5 years, were cross-sectional, and sampled adults from Australia or the United States. Approximately 60% of DO walked their dog, with a median duration and frequency of 160 minutes/week and 4 walks/week, respectively. Meta-analysis showed DO engage in more walking and PA than NDO and the effect sizes are small to moderate (d = 0.26 and d = 0.16, respectively). Three studies provided evidence of a directional relationship between dog ownership and walking.
Longitudinal and interventional studies would provide stronger causal evidence for the relationship between dog ownership and PA. Improved knowledge of factors associated with dog walking will guide intervention research.
Teresa L. Hart, Cora Lynn Craig, Joseph M. Griffiths, Christine Cameron, Ross E. Andersen, Adrian Bauman, and Catrine Tudor-Locke
The Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health (JCUSH) was a one-time collaborative survey undertaken by Statistics Canada and the National Center for Health Statistics.
This analysis provides country-, sex-, and age-specific comparative markers of adult obesity and sedentarism, defined as independent and collective groupings of self-reported leisure-time inactivity (<1.5 MET-hours/day), usual occupational sitting, and no/low active transportation (<1 hour/week). Logistic regression assessed the likelihood of sedentarism in U.S. vs. Canada, with and without adjusting for BMI-defined obesity categories: healthy weight (18.5 ≤ BMI <25 kg/m2; n = 3542), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2; n = 2,651), and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; n = 1470).
Compared with Canadians, U.S. adults are 24% more likely to be overweight/ obese, 59% more likely to be inactive in leisure-time, 19% more likely to report no/low active transportation, and 39% more likely to collectively report all sedentarism markers, adjusting for sex and age. Focusing on obese individuals in both countries, obese U.S. residents were 90% more likely to be inactive during leisure-time, 41% more likely to report no/low active transportation, and 73% more likely to report all sedentarism markers.
This ecological analysis sheds light on differential risks of obesity and sedentarism in these neighboring countries.