The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive assessment of the nutritional habits of competitive bodybuilders and compare the nutrient intakes of macronutrient-based dieting and strict dieting individuals. Data from 41 subjects (30 males and 11 females) were used in analyses. Participants completed a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire, and diets were analyzed using a computer system. Males consumed an average of 2,577.2 kcal (SD = 955.1), with an average fat intake of 83.6 g (SD = 41.3), an average carbohydrate intake of 323.3 g (SD = 105.2), and an average protein intake of 163.4 g (SD = 70.4). There were no significant differences between male macronutrient-based dieting and strict dieting bodybuilders when mean intakes were compared for all nutrients, including the macronutrients, selected vitamins and minerals, dietary fiber, added sugars, and saturated fat. Females in this study consumed an average of 1,794 kcal (SD = 453.1), with an average fat intake of 58.3 g (SD = 23.1), a mean carbohydrate intake of 217.8 g (SD = 85.9), and an average protein intake of 103.8 g (SD = 35.7). For females, macronutrient-based dieters consumed significantly greater amounts of several nutrients, including protein, vitamin E, vitamin K, and vitamin C. Over half of individuals from all groups consumed less than the recommended amounts of several of the micronutrients. Based on this information, it is recommended that competitive bodybuilders should be advised to take their micronutrition into greater consideration.
Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems, and Darryn S. Willoughby
Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton, and Panagiotis Koutakis
Resistance training is known to promote the generation of reactive oxygen species. Although this can likely upregulate the natural, endogenous antioxidant defense systems, high amounts of reactive oxygen species can cause skeletal muscle damage, fatigue, and impair recovery. To prevent these, antioxidant supplements are commonly consumed along with exercise. Recently, it has been shown that these reactive oxygen species are important for the cellular adaptation process, acting as redox signaling molecules. However, most of the research regarding antioxidant status and antioxidant supplementation with exercise has focused on endurance training. In this review, the authors discuss the evidence for resistance training modulating the antioxidant status. They also highlight the effects of combining antioxidant supplementation with resistance training on training-induced skeletal muscle adaptations.