This study is part of a larger investigation concerned with a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of image sponsoring. The notion of image, which is equivalent to the idea of social representation from social psychology, is central to this series of studies. This study was concerned with the similarities and dissimilarities in the images or social representations of the Lyon's Tennis Grand Prix, France (GPTL) and Perrier, a seller of mineral water. In the first phase, a convenience sample of 80 subjects was presented with a list of 300 adjectives and requested to identify those adjectives that described the tennis event and Perrier, Frequency analyses of these responses showed that 23 adjectives were most often cited as representative of the tennis event, while 16 were cited as representative of Perrier. These items were used in the construction of a semantic differential scale, which was administered to 162 randomly selected subjects who were familiar with both the tennis event and Perrier. Canonical analyses showed that the GPTL and Perrier shared the images of (a) being highly popular and entertaining and (b) being dynamic and successful, but distracting. The results also showed that the GPTL had the images of (a) a distinguished, as opposed to a commercial, enterprise and (b) popular because of its arousal value. Perrier's images dimension was considered to be natural and young as opposed to appreciated. The practical implications of the results are discussed.
Alain Ferrand and Monique Pagès
Nicolas Chanavat, Guillaume Martinent and Alain Ferrand
Notwithstanding the substantial development of sponsorship investigations, relationships between the sponsor and cosponsees and fan’s responses (i.e., cognitive, affective and conative) have not been investigated yet in a multiple sponsorship sport event context. Hence, the purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of commercial sponsorships on the intention to purchase sponsor products in relation to brand image and brand attachment. Furthermore, this researcher analyzed the relationships between a sponsor (adidas), an event (2006 FIFA Soccer World Cup Germany), a team (French National Soccer Team) and a top player (Zinédine Zidane). Structural equation modeling was used to conduct this research. The crucial results revealed that a multiple sponsorship arrangement creates interactions between the sponsor and the sponsees brands cognitive and affective stages. Secondly, the model demonstrated that multiple sponsorship activates brand behavioral dimensions (i.e., cognitive, affective and conative) according to the hierarchy of effects model (Lavidge & Steiner, 1961).
Alain Ferrand, Leigh Robinson and Pierre Valette-Florence
The article proposes a conceptual model to examine the relationships between service attributes, brand associations, customer satisfaction, commitment, price of membership, and intention to repurchase in a fitness club. The results show that the services offered by the club, its security, and the promoted image of the club impact positively on satisfaction. The customer relations at the club, customer commitment, and their frequency of weekly attendance have a positive direct effect on intention to repurchase. Perceived price has a negative direct influence. Finally, the research showed that overall satisfaction has a slight positive impact on frequency of attendance. These findings create a paradox for managers of health and fitness organizations who will have to balance the need to increase frequency of attendance to positively impact on intention to repurchase with the need to deliver the service attributes that affect satisfaction and intention to repurchase at high quality level.