These studies were done to determine the effect of carbonation and carbohydrate content on either gastric emptying or ad libitum drinking during treadmill exercise in the heat. Four test drinks were used: a 6% carbohydrate, noncarbonated; a 6% carbohydrate, carbonated; a 10% carbohydrate, noncarbonated; and a 10% carbohydrate, carbonated drink. For gastric emptying studies, subjects completed four 1-hr treadmill runs in the heat. They were given 400 mL of test drink at 0 rnin and 200 mL at 15, 30, and 45 min of exercise. For ad libitum drinking studies, subjects completed four 2-hr treadmill runs in the heat. Gastric residual volumes were similar during the four 1-hr runs. During the 2-hr runs, ad libitum drinking of the four beverages was also similar. Mean values for sweat rate, percentage of body weight lost, and percentage of fluid replaced by ad libitum drinking were similar for the four trials. Similar changes in heart rate, rectal temperature, and ratings of perceived exertion were also observed during the four 2-hr treadmill runs. We conclude that the presence of carbonation in a carbohydrate drink did not have a significant effect on either gastric emptying or ad libitum drinking.