Paavo V. Komi and Albert Gollhofer
Guillaume Mornieux, Elmar Weltin, Monika Pauls, Franz Rott and Albert Gollhofer
Trunk positioning has been shown to be associated with knee joint loading during athletic tasks, especially changes of direction. The purpose of the present study was to test whether a full-body compression suit (FBCS) would improve trunk positioning and knee joint control during lateral movements. Twelve female athletes performed lateral reactive jumps (LRJ) and unanticipated cuttings with and without the customized FBCS, while 3D kinematics and kinetics were measured. FBCS did not influence trunk positioning during LRJ and led to increased trunk lateral lean during cuttings (P < .001). However, while wearing FBCS, knee joint abduction and internal rotation angles were reduced during LRJ (P < .001 and P = .013, respectively), whereas knee joint moments were comparable during cuttings. FBCS cannot support the trunk segment during unanticipated dynamic movements. But, increased trunk lateral lean during cutting maneuvers was not high enough to elicit increased knee joint moments. On the contrary, knee joint abduction and internal rotation were reduced during LRJ, speaking for a better knee joint alignment with FBCS. Athletes seeking to improve trunk positioning may not benefit from a FBCS.
Jana Fleischmann, Guillaume Mornieux, Dominic Gehring and Albert Gollhofer
Sideward movements are associated with high incidences of lateral ankle sprains. Special shoe constructions might be able to reduce these injuries during lateral movements. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether medial compressible forefoot sole elements can reduce ankle inversion in a reactive lateral movement, and to evaluate those elements’ influence on neuromuscular and mechanical adjustments in lower extremities. Foot placement and frontal plane ankle joint kinematics and kinetics were analyzed by 3-dimensional motion analysis. Electromyographic data of triceps surae, peroneus longus, and tibialis anterior were collected. This modified shoe reduced ankle inversion in comparison with a shoe with a standard sole construction. No differences in ankle inversion moments were found. With the modified shoe, foot placement occurred more internally rotated, and muscle activity of the lateral shank muscles was reduced. Hence, lateral ankle joint stability during reactive sideward movements can be improved by these compressible elements, and therefore lower lateral shank muscle activity is required. As those elements limit inversion, the strategy to control inversion angles via a high external foot rotation does not need to be used.
Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König
Purpose: Setting the optimal cuff pressure is a crucial part of prescribing blood-flow-restriction training. It is currently recommended to use percentages of each individual’s arterial occlusion pressure, which is most accurately determined by Doppler ultrasound (DU). However, the practicality of this gold-standard method in daily training routine is limited due to high costs. An alternative solution is pulse oximetry (PO). The main purpose of this study was to evaluate validity between PO and DU measurements and to investigate whether sex has a potential influence on these variables. Methods: A total of 94 subjects were enrolled in the study. Participants were positioned in a supine position, and a 12-cm-wide cuff was applied in a counterbalanced order at the most proximal portion of the right upper and lower limbs. The cuff pressure was successively increased until pulse was no longer detected by DU and PO. Results: There were no significant differences between the DU and PO methods when measuring arterial occlusion pressure at the upper limb (P = .308). However, both methods showed considerable disagreement for the lower limbs (P = .001), which was evident in both men (P = .028) and women (P = .008). No sex differences were detected. Conclusions: PO is reasonably accurate to determine arterial occlusion pressure of the upper limbs. For lower limbs, PO does not seem to be a valid instrument when assessing the optimal cuff pressure for blood-flow-restriction interventions compared with DU.
Urs Granacher, Andre Lacroix, Katrin Roettger, Albert Gollhofer and Thomas Muehlbauer
This study investigated associations between variables of trunk muscle strength (TMS), spinal mobility, and balance in seniors. Thirty-four seniors (sex: 18 female, 16 male; age: 70 ± 4 years; activity level: 13 ± 7 hr/week) were tested for maximal isometric strength (MIS) of the trunk extensors, flexors, lateral flexors, rotators, spinal mobility, and steady-state, reactive, and proactive balance. Significant correlations were detected between all measures of TMS and static steady-state balance (r = .43−.57, p < .05). Significant correlations were observed between specific measures of TMS and dynamic steady-state balance (r = .42−.55, p < .05). No significant correlations were found between all variables of TMS and reactive/proactive balance and between all variables of spinal mobility and balance. Regression analyses revealed that TMS explains between 1–33% of total variance of the respective balance parameters. Findings indicate that TMS is related to measures of steady-state balance which may imply that TMS promoting exercises should be integrated in strength training for seniors.