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Emilio J. Martínez-López, Nestor Zamora-Aguilera, Alberto Grao-Cruces, and Manuel J. De la Torre-Cruz


The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Spanish physical education teachers’ perceived self-efficacy toward including overweight and obese students and their attitudes toward overweight and obese students.


Four hundred and seventy-one physical education teachers filled out questionnaires to assess their self-efficacy expectations to meet overweight and obese students’ educational needs, and to identify physical education teachers’ beliefs and attitudes toward these students.


The physical education teachers with a higher perceived self-efficacy in fostering participation and in assessing and promoting overweight and obese students’ learning were more sensitive toward these students’ fitness and healthcare and showed less pejorative attitudes toward overweight and obesity.


These results highlight the need for teaching education programs capable of increasing the physical education teachers’ perceived self-efficacy in this area. The results also show that there is a need for training for teachers and students in strategies aimed at reducing the cases of victimization of overweight and obese students.

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Alberto Grao-Cruces, Julio Conde-Caveda, Magdalena Cuenca-García, Román Nuviala, Alejandro Pérez-Bey, Fátima Martín-Acosta, and José Castro-Piñero

Background: According to the current physical activity (PA) recommendations, children should accumulate 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) throughout the day, 30 minutes of MVPA during the school hours, and 50% of the recess time in MVPA. Our aim was to examine the temporal trends of accelerometer-based PA during the previously mentioned day segments and the proportion of children who met the PA recommendations. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 2 independent samples: 499 fourth graders (49.2% females) in 2011–2012 and 364 fourth graders (46.9% females) in 2017–2018. Hip-worn accelerometers were used to assess PA. Results: A decline in light PA, moderate PA, vigorous PA, MVPA, and total PA during whole day, and in the rate of compliance with daily MVPA recommendations in males (P < .01) was observed from 2011–2012 to 2017–2018. Females decreased their daily light PA and moderate PA (P < .05). A decline in all PA variables during school hours in both sexes (P < .05) and in the rate of compliance with the 30 minutes of MVPA recommended during school hours in males (P < .001) were observed. There were no differences in PA during recesses. Conclusions: Interventions are needed to attenuate the temporal decrease in PA levels in children.