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Open access

Physical Activity Promotion as a Means to Foster Human and Planetary Health: The Need to Avoid Potential Conflicts of Interests With Unhealthy Commodity Industries

Alejandra Jáuregui

Open access

Moving Together to Advance Physical Activity Research in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The Case of Latin America

Deborah Salvo, Andrea Ramírez Varela, and Alejandra Jáuregui

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Designing and Implementing a Quality Physical Education Policy: Successes, Setbacks, and Lessons Learned From the Quality Physical Education Policy Project in Mexico

Alejandra Jáuregui, Selene Pacheco-Miranda, Armando García-Olvera, and Emanuel Orozco-Núñez

Background: Quality physical education (QPE) is part of a whole-of-school approach for school-based physical activity promotion. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization QPE Policy Project supported 4 countries to develop QPE policies. The authors summarize the process, progress, successes, setbacks, and lessons learned during the implementation of the project in Mexico. Methods: The project was developed from August 2016 to April 2018 following the methodology proposed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Adaptations to the methodology were made to meet local needs. Results and Discussion: The project successfully implemented the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization methodology and prepared a national strategy for the provision of QPE in Mexico. The national strategy progressed despite the change in presidential administration. Successes included the use of a QPE policy evaluation framework, the inclusion of stakeholders representing extreme PE views and from all regions in the country, and the presence of international agencies in the national team. Setbacks included difficulties in engaging key organizations and a weak communication campaign. Lessons learned are discussed. Conclusions: The QPE project in Mexico served as a pilot project to test the feasibility of implementing a QPE policy revision process. The experience and lessons learned in Mexico can be drawn on to inform the work of other stakeholders interested in advocating for a national QPE policy.

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Active Commuting to School in Mexican Adolescents: Evidence From the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey

Alejandra Jáuregui, Catalina Medina, Deborah Salvo, Simon Barquera, and Juan A. Rivera-Dommarco

Background:

Travel to school offers a convenient way to increase physical activity (PA) levels in youth. We examined the prevalence and correlates of active commuting to school (ACS) in a nationally representative sample of Mexican adolescents. A secondary objective was to explore the association between ACS and BMI status.

Methods:

Using data of adolescents (10–14 years old) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 2952) we ran multivariate regression models to explore the correlates of ACS and to test the association between ACS and BMI z-score or overweight/obesity. Models were adjusted for potential confounders and design effect.

Results:

70.8% of adolescents engaged in ACS (walking: 68.8%, bicycling: 2.0%). ACS was negatively associated with travel time, age, mother’s education level, household motor vehicle ownership, family socioeconomic status, and living in urban areas or the North region of the country (P < .05). Time in ACS was negatively associated with overweight/obesity: Each additional minute of ACS was associated with a 1% decrease in the odds for being overweight or obese (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Potential correlates of ACS that may result in benefits for Mexican adolescents are identified. More studies on this relationship are needed to develop interventions aimed at increasing PA through ACS in Mexico.

Restricted access

A Multisite Study of Environmental Correlates of Active Commuting to School in Mexican Children

Alejandra Jauregui, Erica Soltero, René Santos-Luna, Lucia Hernández-Barrera, Simon Barquera, Edtna Jáuregui, Lucie Lévesque, Juan López-Taylor, Luis Ortiz-Hernández, and Rebecca Lee

Background:

Mexican children often use active commuting to school (ACS). In order to maintain high levels of ACS it is important to understand correlates of ACS in this population. However, most evidence comes from high-income countries (HICs). We examined multilevel correlates of ACS in children attending public schools in 3 Mexican cities.

Methods:

Information on 1191 children (grades 3 to 5) attending 26 schools was retrieved from questionnaires, neighborhood audits, and geographic information systems data. Multilevel logistic modeling was used to explore individual and environmental correlates of ACS at 400-m and 800-m buffers surrounding schools.

Results:

Individual positive correlates for ACS included age (6–8 years vs 9–11 years, odds ratio [OR] = 1.5; 6–8 years vs ≥12 years: OR = 2.1) and ≥ 6 adults at home (OR = 2.0). At the 400-m buffer, more ACS was associated with lower walkability (OR = 0.87), presence of posted speed limits (< 6% vs > 12%: OR = 0.36) and crossing aids (< 6% vs 6–20%: OR = 0.25; > 20%: OR = 0.26), as well as higher sidewalk availability (< 70% vs > 90%: OR = 4.5). Similar relationships with speed limits and crossing aids were observed at the 800m buffer.

Conclusions:

Findings contrast with those reported in HICs, underscoring the importance of considering the local context when developing strategies to promote ACS. Future studies are needed to replicate these relationships and investigate the longitudinal impact of improving active transportation infrastructure and policies.

Open access

Results From Mexico’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

Karla I. Galaviz, Mabel Aguilar Arroyo, Inés González-Casanova, Martín Francisco González Villalobos, Alejandra Jáuregui, Edtna Jáuregui Ulloa, Selene Pacheco Miranda, Marcela Pérez Rodríguez, Ricardo Alejandro Retano Pelayo, and Juan Ricardo López-Taylor

Background:

The 2016 Mexican Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth aims to assess how Mexico is doing in terms of providing physical activity (PA) opportunities for Mexican children and youth. The purpose of this article is to summarize results from the Mexican 2016 Report Card.

Methods:

A literature search was conducted in Spanish and English languages using major databases, and complemented with a review of government/nongovernment documents, websites, and national health surveys. Information on the 9 indicators outlined in the Global Matrix of Report Card Grades was extracted. A team of Mexican experts met to discuss and assign a grade on each indicator based on the best available evidence and established benchmarks.

Results:

Daily behaviors grades were Overall PA (C), Organized Sport Participation (D), Active Play (D-), Active Transportation (C), and Sedentary Behavior (D). For Settings and Sources of Influence, grades were Family and Peers (INC), School (D-), and Community and Environment (D). Strategies and Investments grades were Government Strategies (C) and Non-Government (F).

Conclusions:

PA and sedentary behaviors among Mexican children and youth remain below the recommended levels. Government and communities are far from providing appropriate and sufficient physical activity opportunities for children and youth.

Open access

Science has no Borders, so Should Scientific Publishing: A Position Statement from the Journal of Physical Activity and Health

Ding Ding, Valerie Carson, Ruth F. Hunter, Alejandra Jáuregui, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Eun-Young Lee, Jacqueline L. Mair, Gregore Iven Mielke, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Andrea Ramírez Varela, Deborah Salvo, Katja Siefken, Rafael M. Tassitano, Esther van Sluijs, and Pedro C. Hallal

Free access

Physical Activity Policies at National and Subnational Levels: A Study in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Mexico

Juliana Mejía Grueso, Michael Pratt, Eugen Resendiz, Deborah Salvo, Gloria Isabel Niño Cruz, Nubia Yaneth Ruiz Gómez, Rafael Alexander Leandro Gómez, Inés Revuelta Sánchez, Gerardo Alonso Araya Vargas, Angélica María Ochoa Avilés, Raúl Francisco Pérez Tasigchana, Alejandra Jáuregui, Pedro C. Hallal, and Andrea Ramírez Varela

Background: National physical activity (PA) policy processes are only beginning to be studied in Latin America, and little attention has focused at the subnational level. This study examined national–subnational relations in the policy process (agenda setting, policy formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation) in selected Latin American countries. Methods: The Global Observatory for Physical Activity’s (GoPA!) INTEGRATE-PA-Pol tool was applied in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Mexico. Data were collected in matched pairs of the capital plus one noncapital city among national and subnational policymakers (n = 27), previously identified by the GoPA! Country Contacts. PA policy development and implementation were assessed using descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-three (response rate = 85.2%) informants provided data, mainly from the health sector (52.2%), followed by the sport (26.1%), transport (13.0%), and education (8.7%) sectors. Most informants reported that their countries had a current PA policy embedded within noncommunicable diseases prevention plans (46.2%), other plans (46.2%), or obesity prevention/management/control plans (7.7%). Respondents at the subnational level rated PA promotion as central (64.3%), while the national-level role was important but not central (75.0%). National and subnational policymakers indicated low-to-little involvement in the other level’s PA policy processes across the 5 policy stages. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that collecting national and subnational PA policy data across countries with the active collaboration of the GoPA! network was feasible. We also successfully identified governmental interactions throughout the PA policy process, suggesting suboptimal engagement between national and subnational levels.

Open access

Results from Mexico’s 2018 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

Karla I. Galaviz, Gabriela Argumedo Garcia, Alejandro Gaytán-González, Inés González-Casanova, Martín Francisco González Villalobos, Alejandra Jáuregui, Edtna Jáuregui Ulloa, Catalina Medina, Yoali Selene Pacheco Miranda, Marcela Pérez Rodríguez, Eugen Resendiz, Ricardo Alejandro Retano Pelayo, María del Pilar Rodríguez Martínez, and Juan Ricardo López y Taylor

Free access

The Legacy of Dr. Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III From the Perspective of His Mentees

Gregory Knell, Kathryn Burford, Tammy Calise, Erin E. Dooley, Augusto Ferreira de Moraes, Leigh Ann Ganzar, Ho Han, Natalia Heredia, Alejandra Jáuregui, Ashleigh Johnson, Kevin Lanza, Eileen Nehme, Hildi Nicksic, Abiodun O. Oluyomi, Anna Porter, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Michael Robertson, Deborah Salvo, Timothy Walker, and Yuzi Zhang