The aims of this study were (a) to determine which of the most used anthropometric equations was the most accurate to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF), (b) to develop a new specific anthropometric equation, and (c) to validate this football-specific equation. A total of 126 (13.3 ± 0.6 years) football players (86 males and 40 females) participated in the present study. Participants were divided into two groups: 98 players were included in the assessment of existing equations and in the development of the new prediction equation, and 28 players were used to validate it. %BF was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and also estimated with six different %BF anthropometric equations: Johnston, Slaughter, Carter, Faulkner, Deurenberg, and Santi-Maria. Paired t tests were used to analyze differences between methods. A football-specific equation was developed by a stepwise linear regression. The existing anthropometric equations showed significant bias for %BF when compared with DXA (p < .001; constant error ranged from −4.57% to 9.24%; standard error of estimate ranged from 2.46 to 4.20). On the other hand, the developed football-specific equation was %BF = 11.115 + 0.775 (triceps skinfold) + 0.193 (iliac crest skinfold) − 1.606 (sex). The developed equation demonstrated neither %BF differences (p = .121; constant error = 0.57%; standard error of estimate = 0.36) when compared with DXA, presenting a high cross-validation prediction power (R 2 = .85). Published anthropometric equations were not accurate to estimate %BF in adolescent football players. Due to the fact that the developed football-specific equation showed neither differences nor heteroscedasticity when compared with DXA, this equation is recommended to assess %BF in adolescent football players.
Gabriel Lozano-Berges, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro González-Agüero, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez and José A. Casajús
Borja Muniz-Pardos, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alex González-Agüero, Alba Gómez-Cabello, José A. Casajús and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
Purpose: To examine the effects of a 6-month whole-body vibration (WBV) training on lower-body strength (LBS), lower-body power (LBP), and swimming performance in adolescent trained swimmers. Methods: Thirty-seven swimmers (23 males and 14 females; 14.8 [1.3] y) were randomly assigned to the WBV (n = 20) or the control group (n = 17). Isometric LBS (knee extension and half squat) and LBP (vertical and horizontal jumps and 30-m sprint) tests were performed before and after the intervention period. Swimming performance times in 100 m were collected from official competitions. As time × sex interaction was not found for any variable (P > .05), males and females were analyzed as a whole. Results: Within-group analyses showed a most likely beneficial moderate effect of WBV on isometric knee extension (effect size [ES] = 0.63), 30-m sprint test (ES = 0.62), and 100-m performance (ES = 0.25), although these were corresponded with comparable small to moderate effects in the control group (ES = 0.73, 0.71, and 0.20, respectively). The control group obtained a small possibly beneficial effect of swimming-only training on vertical jump performance, whereas no effect was observed in the WBV group. Unclear effects were observed for the rest of the variables assessed. Between-group analyses revealed unclear effects of WBV training when compared with the control condition in all studied variables. Conclusions: There is no current evidence to support the use of WBV training, and therefore, coaches and sports specialists should select other methods of training when the aim is to increase LBS, LBP, or swimming performance.