This study examined forearm vasodilatation during mental challenge and exercise in 72 obese children (OC; age = 10 ± 0.1 years) homozygous with polymorphism in the allele 27 of the β2-adrenoceptors: Gln27 (n = 61) and Glu27 (n = 11). Forearm blood flow was recorded during 3 min of each using the Stroop color-word test (MS) and handgrip isometric exercise. Baseline hemodynamic and vascular measurements were similar. During the MS, peak forearm vascular conductance was significantly greater in group Glu27 (Δ = 0.35 ± 0.4 vs. 0.12 ± 0.1 units, respectively, p = .042). Similar results were found during exercise (Δ = 0.64 ± 0.1 vs. 0.13 ± 0.1 units, respectively, p = .035). Glu27 OC increased muscle vasodilatory responsiveness upon the MS and exercise.
Alexandre G. da Silva, Mauricio M. Ribeiro, Ivani C. Trombetta, Christiane Nicolau, Eliana Frazzatto, Isabel Guazzelli, Luciana N. J. Matos, Alfredo Halpern, Carlos E. Negrão and Sandra M.F. Villares
Michelle S.M. Silva, Wladimir Bolani, Cleber R. Alves, Diogo G. Biagi, José R. Lemos Jr, Jeferson L. da Silva, Patrícia A. de Oliveira, Guilherme B. Alves, Edilamar M. de Oliveira, Carlos E. Negrão, José E. Krieger, Rodrigo G. Dias and Alexandre C. Pereira
To study the relationship between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and oxygen uptake (VO2) before and after exercise training.
Police recruits (N = 206, 25 ± 4 y) with RR (n = 75), RX (n = 97), and XX (n = 33) genotypes were selected. After baseline measures, they underwent 18 wk of running endurance training. Peak VO2 was obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing.
Baseline body weight was not different among genotypes. At baseline, XX individuals displayed higher VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak than did RR individuals (P < .003). Endurance training significantly increased VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak (P < 2 × 10−6), but the differences between XX and RR were no longer observed. Only relative peak VO2 exercise remained higher in XX than in RR genotype (P = .04). In contrast, the increase in relative peak VO2 was greater in RR than in XX individuals (12% vs 6%; P = .02).
ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with VO2. XX individuals have greater aerobic capacity. Endurance training eliminates differences in peak VO2 between XX and RR individuals. These findings suggest a ceiling-effect phenomenon, and, perhaps, trained individuals may not constitute an adequate population to explain associations between phenotypic variability and gene variations.