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Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa

The present study examined the effects of a 12-week low-intensity resistance exercise training (LIRET) regimen on heart rate variability, strength, and body composition in obese postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of either LIRET (n = 10) or nonexercising control group (n = 10). Heart rate variability, leg muscle strength, and body composition were measured before and after 12 weeks. There were significant decreases (p < .05) in sympathovagal balance (LnLF/LnHF) and sympathetic tone (nLF), as well as significant increases (p < .05) in parasympathetic tone (nHF) and strength following LIRET compared with no changes after control. There were no significant changes in body composition after LIRET or control. LIRET may be an effective therapeutic intervention for improving sympathovagal balance and strength in obese postmenopausal women. As obese postmenopausal women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and physical disability, they could potentially benefit from LIRET.

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Gregory Severino, Marcos Sanchez-Gonzalez, Michelle Walters-Edwards, Michael Nordvall, Oksana Chernykh, Jason Adames and Alexei Wong

The present study examined the effects of a 6-week whole-body vibration training (WBVT) regimen on heart rate variability (HRV) and body composition in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to either WBVT (n = 13) or a nonexercising control group (n = 14). HRV and body composition were measured before and after 6 weeks. There was a significant group by time interaction (P < .05) for heart rate, sympathovagal balance, and body fat percentage (BF%) such that all significantly decreased (P < .05); and R-R intervals significantly increased (P < .05) following WBVT compared to no changes after control. The changes in sympathovagal balance were correlated with changes in BF% (r = .63, P < .05). Our findings indicate that WBVT improves HRV and BF% in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. The improvement in BF% partially explained the decrease in sympathovagal balance. Since obese and older individuals are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, they could potentially benefit from WBVT.

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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

Purpose: Childhood and adolescent obesity is a major international public health crisis. It is crucial to prevent the negative effects of obesity at an early age by implementing appropriate lifestyle interventions, such as exercise training. We evaluated the effects of a combined resistance and aerobic exercise training (CET) regimen on arterial stiffness, vasoactive substances, inflammatory markers, metabolic profile, and body composition in obese adolescent girls. Methods: A total of 30 obese adolescent girls were randomly assigned to a CET (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). The CET group trained for 3 days per week. Plasma nitric oxide, endothelin-1, C-reactive protein, arterial stiffness, glucose, insulin, the adiponectin/leptin ratio, and body fat were measured before and after 12 weeks. Results: There were significant increases (P < .05) in nitric oxide (4.0 μM) and adiponectin/leptin ratio (0.33); and decreases (P < .05) in arterial stiffness (−1.0 m/s), C-reactive protein (−0.5 mg/L), glucose (−1.2 mmol/L), insulin (−17.1 μU/mL), and body fat (−3.6%) following CET compared with control. There were no significant changes in endothelin-1 after CET or control. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that CET improves arterial stiffness, nitric oxide, and inflammatory and metabolic markers in obese adolescent girls. CET may have important health implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis at an early age.

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Alexei Wong, Arturo Figueroa, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Oksana Chernykh and Song-Young Park

The present study examined the effects of a 12-week Tai Chi (TC) training regimen on heart rate variability (HRV), symptomatology, muscle fitness and body composition in women with fibromyalgia. Participants were randomly assigned to either a TC training group (n = 18) or a control group (n = 19). HRV, symptomatology, muscle fitness and body composition were measured before and after 12 weeks. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in sympathovagal balance (LnLF/LnHF), sympathetic tone (LnLF, nLF), pain, and fatigue, and significant increases (p < 0.05) in parasympathetic tone (LnHF, nHF), strength and flexibility following TC compared with no changes after control. The changes in LnLF and LnLF/LnHF were correlated with changes in pain. There were no significant changes in HR, sleep quality and body composition after TC or control. TC may be an effective therapeutic intervention for improving sympathovagal balance, pain, fatigue, strength and flexibility in women with fibromyalgia.