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Mindy Patterson, Wanyi Wang and Alexis Ortiz

This study identified which energy expenditure (EE) and dietary intake outcomes determine EE from doubly-labeled water (DLW) in U.S. older adults (n = 681; 45.9% male; mean age 63.2). A secondary data analysis using baseline data from The Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in AARP (IDATA) study was conducted. Stepwise linear regressions identified predictor outcomes of EE from DLW within sexes. Outcomes included data from ActiGraph accelerometers, Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) self-report activity questionnaire, Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall, Dietary History Questionnaire II (DHQ II), and resting EE. Energy expenditure by ActiGraph in males predicted EE from DLW (R 2 = 0.33, p < .001). EE from ActiGraph and total dietary fiber from DHQ II predicted EE from DLW in females (R 2 = 0.44, p < .001). The CHAMPS closely matched EE from DLW when considering resting EE. These findings can be used to assess energy balance in a non-invasive manner in older adults.

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Laura Spivey Kabiri, Katy Mitchell, Wayne Brewer and Alexis Ortiz

Almost 2 million American children are homeschooled but no information is currently available regarding motor skill proficiency within this population. The purpose of this research was to describe motor skill proficiency among homeschooled children and assess differences in homeschooled subgroups. This crosssectional study screened 73 homeschooled children aged 5–8 years for overall motor skill proficiency using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition, Short Form (BOT-2 SF). Independent t tests examined differences in motor skill proficiency within the homeschooled population. Mann-Whitney U tests examined differences in motor skill proficiency classification within significantly different subgroups. Homeschooled children demonstrated average motor proficiency. Significantly different motor proficiency was seen among homeschooled children participating in 3 or more hours of organized sports per week, t(71) = 2.805, p = .006, 95% CI = 1.77, 10.49, and whose primary caregiver was employed versus unemployed, t(71) = –3.875, p < .001, 95% CI = –13.29, –4.26. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed significantly different motor skill proficiency classification in these same subgroups. Overall, homeschooling showed no detrimental effect on motor skill proficiency. Participation in 3 or more hours of organized sports per week or having an unemployed primary caregiver may improve motor skill proficiency among this population.

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Laura S. Kabiri, Katy Mitchell, Wayne Brewer and Alexis Ortiz


The growth and unregulated structure of homeschooling creates an unknown population in regard to muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this research was to compare muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness between elementary school aged homeschool and public school children.


Homeschool children ages 8–11 years old (n = 75) completed the curl-up, 90° push-up, and Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (PACER) portions of the FitnessGram to assess abdominal and upper body strength and endurance as well as cardiorespiratory fitness. Comparisons to public school children (n = 75) were made using t tests and chi-square tests.


Homeschool children showed significantly lower abdominal (t(148) = -11.441, p < .001; χ2 (1) = 35.503, p < .001) and upper body (t(148) = -3.610, p < .001; χ2 (1) = 4.881, p = .027) strength and endurance. There were no significant differences in cardiorespiratory fitness by total PACER laps (t(108) = 0.879, p = .381) or estimated VO2max (t(70) = 1.187, p = .239; χ2 (1) = 1.444, p = .486).


Homeschool children showed significantly lower levels of both abdominal and upper body muscular fitness compared with their age and gender matched public school peers but no difference in cardiorespiratory fitness.

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Jose Ignacio Priego-Quesada, Alejandro Pérez-Guarner, Alexis Gandia-Soriano, Fran Oficial-Casado, Carlos Galindo, Rosa M. Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, José David Piñeiro-Ramos, Ángel Sánchez-Illana, Julia Kuligowski, Marco A. Gomes Barbosa, Máximo Vento and Rosario Salvador Palmer

Context: Although skin-temperature assessment has received much attention in recent years as a possible internal-load measurement, scientific evidence is scarce. Purpose: To analyze baseline skin temperature and its rewarming through means of a cold-stress test before and after performing a marathon and to study the association between skin temperature and internal/external-load measurements. Methods: A total of 16 runners were measured 48 and 24 h before and 24 and 48 h after completing a marathon. The measurements on each day of testing included urine biomarkers of oxidative stress, pain and fatigue perception, skin temperature (at baseline and after a cold-stress test), and jump performance. Results: Reduced jump performance (P < .01 and effect size [ES] = 0.5) and higher fatigue and pain perception were observed 24 h after the marathon (P < .01 and ES > 0.8). Although no differences in baseline skin temperature were observed between the 4 measuring days, posterior legs presented lower constant (P < .01 and ES = 1.4) and higher slope (P = .04 and ES = 1.1) parameters in the algorithmic equations fitted for skin-temperature recovery after the cold-stress test 24 h after the marathon than on the day before the marathon. Regressions showed that skin-temperature parameters could be predicted by the ratio of ortho-tyrosine isomer to phenylalanine (oxidative stress biomarker) and body fat composition, among others. Conclusions: Although baseline skin temperature was not altered 24 or 48 h after a marathon, the application of cold stress after the marathon would appear to be a good method for providing information on vasoconstriction and a runner’s state of stress.