Our purpose in this study was to document the criterion validity of the Fitbit Zip for measuring steps taken by youth with visual impairments (VI). A secondary purpose was to determine whether walking pace, mounting position, or relative position to the user’s mobility device impacted the criterion validity of the device. Fourteen adolescent-aged individuals (M age = 15.4; 13 male and 1 female) with VI participated in this study. Participants wore four Fitbit Zips at different mounting positions and completed two, 2-min walking trials while the lead investigator hand tallied steps. Measurement validity was analyzed using absolute percent error (APE), intraclass correlation coefficients estimated level of conformity, and paired samples t tests and Cohen’s d effect sizes assessed APE relative to mounting positions. Results supported the use of the Fitbit Zip during regular-paced walking; however, caution must be used during activities exceeding regular walking speeds, as devices consistently underestimated steps.
Justin A. Haegele, Ali S. Brian, and Donna Wolf
Chelsee A. Shortt, Collin A. Webster, Richard J. Keegan, Cate A. Egan, and Ali S. Brian
Purpose: To operationally conceptualize physical literacy (PL) for application in the United States, using a modified Delphi approach, with PL academics. Methods: A sequential, mixed methods, modified Delphi research design was employed, consisting of three phases: (a) literature analysis, (b) Delphi Survey I (22 participants), and (c) Delphi Survey II (18 participants). Data were analyzed using qualitative coding and descriptive frequency statistics. Results: PL academics’ conceptions of PL suggested a multidimensional, noncontextual, personal, holistic learning process. Qualitative analysis generated two themes: (a) “PL is” and (b) “PL is not.” Quantitative results aligned with the qualitative findings. PL concepts that achieved unanimous agreement were (a) application of knowledge to physical activity (PA), (b) value of PA, (c) autonomous participation in PA, (d) enjoyment of PA, and (e) ability to participate in PA independently. Discussion/Conclusion: PL was operationalized as an autonomous application of movement, constructed by the individual’s conception of movement and response to adversity.