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Effect of Acute Exercise and Cycling Desk on Energy Intake and Appetite Response to Mental Work: The CORTEX Study

David Thivel, Pauline Genin, Alicia Fillon, Marwa Khammassi, Johanna Roche, Kristine Beaulieu, Graham Finlayson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Martine Duclos, Angelo Tremblay, Bruno Pereira, and Lore Metz

Background: While mental work has been shown to favor overconsumption, the present study compared the effect of a cognitive task alone, followed by acute exercise, or performed on a cycling desk, on short-term food intake and appetite in adults. Methods: A total of 19 normal-weight adults randomly completed: resting session (CON), 30-minute cognitive task (CT), 30-minute cognitive task followed by a 15-minute high-intensity interval exercise bout (CT–EX), and 30-minute cognitive task performed on a cycling desk (CT-CD). Energy expenditure was estimated (heart rate–workload relationship), and energy intake (EI; ad libitum) and appetite (visual analog scales) were assessed. Results: Energy expenditure was higher in CT-EX (P < .001) compared with the other conditions and in CT-CD compared with CON and CT (P < .01). EI was higher in CON (P < .05) and CT-CD compared with CT (P < .01). Relative EI was higher in CON compared with CT (P < .05) and lower in CT-EX compared with CT, CT-CD, and CON (all Ps < .001). Area under the curve desire to eat was higher in CON compared with CT (P < .05) and CT-EX (P < .01). Area under the curve prospective food consumption was higher in CON compared with CT-EX (P < .01). Overall composite appetite score was not different between conditions. Conclusion: While cycling desks are recommended to break up sedentary time, the induced increase in energy expenditure might not be enough to significantly reduce overall short-term relative EI after mental work.

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The Effects of Using a Cycling Desk at School on Executive Function, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Primary School Children: Impact of Socioeconomic Status

Camille Chambonnière, Lore Metz, Alicia Fillon, Pauline Demonteix, Nicole Fearnbach, Mélina Bailly, Audrey Boscaro, Bruno Pereira, David Thivel, and Martine Duclos

Context: Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors are associated with adverse health outcomes in both adults and children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 9-week program using a Cycle Desk during school time in French primary school children from high or low socioeconomic status (SES) on body composition, physical fitness (PF), and executive function. Methods: Seventy-five (n = 75) children completed a test battery before and after 9 weeks of use of Cycle Desk to evaluate anthropometric characteristics, body composition, PF, and executive function. Results: Body mass index increased significantly (P = .0095), while body fat decreased after the use of Cycle Desks (P < .0001). Specifically, lean mass increased in the high-SES group while it decreased in the low-SES group (P < .0001). After 9 weeks, there was an improvement in motor skills (P < .0001), upper and lower limbs’ strength (P < .0001), and executive function performance (P < .0001). More specifically, the low-SES group had a greater improvement in motor skills and maximal aerobic speed between T0 and T1, compared to the high-SES group (P = .001, P = .023, respectively). In contrast, the high-SES group had a greater improvement in executive function at 9 weeks of use of Cycle Desk compared with the low-SES group (P = .0084). Conclusions: The promotion of low-intensity physical activity with the use of a Cycle Desk at school may help offset some adverse effects of excess sedentary behavior among children. Moreover, this strategy appears to be particularly effective in children from low-SES backgrounds. What’s New: The use of a Cycle Desk during school time has no deleterious effects on PF as well as cognitive executive functions in primary children. Modifications are more beneficial in children from low SES.

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Results from France’s 2018 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

Salomé Aubert, Julien Aucouturier, Caroline Ganière, Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Julien Schipman, Benjamin Larras, Corinne Praznoczy, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel

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France’s 2018 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth: Results and International Comparisons

Salomé Aubert, Julien Aucouturier, Jeremy Vanhelst, Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Caroline Ganière, Corinne Praznoczy, Benjamin Larras, Julien Schipman, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel

Background: Insufficient levels of physical activity and increasing sedentary time among children and youth are being observed internationally. The purpose of this paper is to summarize findings from France’s 2018 Report Card on physical activity for children and youth, and to make comparisons with its 2016 predecessor and with the Report Cards of other countries engaged in the Global Matrix 3.0. Methods: The France’s 2018 Report Card was developed following the standardized methodology established for the Global Matrix 3.0 by grading 10 common physical activity indicators using best available data. Grades were informed by national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, government and nongovernment reports, and online information. Results: The expert panel awarded the following grades: overall physical activity, D; organized sport participation and physical activity, C−; active play, INC; active transportation, C−; sedentary behaviors, D−; physical fitness, B–; family and peers, INC; school, B; community and the built environment, INC; and government, C. Conclusions: Very concerning levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among French children and youth were observed, highlighting the urgent need for well-designed national actions addressing the presented physical inactivity crisis. The top 3 strategies that should be implemented in priority to improve the lifestyle of French children and youth are provided.

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France’s 2020 Report Card on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Children and Youth: Results and Progression

Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Benjamin Larras, Jeremy Vanhelst, Maxime Luiggi, Salome Aubert, Charlotte Verdot, Olivier Rey, Lena Lhuisset, Julien Bois, Nicole Fearnbach, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel

Background: There is an alarming and constant worldwide progression of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents. The present paper summarizes findings from France’s 2020 Report Card on physical activity for children and youth, comparing its results to its 2 previous editions (2016 and 2018). Methods: France’s 2020 Report Card follows the standardized methodology established by the Active Healthy Kids Global Matrix, grading 10 common physical activity indicators using the best available evidence. The grades were informed by national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, government and nongovernment reports, and online information. Results: The expert panel awarded the following grades: Overall Physical Activity: D; Organized Sport Participation and Physical Activity: C−; Active Play: INC; Active Transportation: C−; Sedentary Behaviors: D−; Family and Peers: D−; Physical Fitness: D; School: B−; Community and the Built Environment: F; Government: C. Conclusions: This 2020 edition of France’s Report Card again highlights the alarming levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among French children and adolescents, calling for the development of effective national action. It also draws attention to the particular deleterious effects of the COVID-19 confinement on youth’s movement behaviors, which significantly worsened the situation.

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COVID-19–Related National Re-confinement: Recommendations From the National French Observatory for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors (ONAPS)

David Thivel, Michéle Tardieu, Pauline Genin, Alicia Fillon, Benjamin Larras, Pierre Melsens, Julien Bois, Frédéric Dutheil, Francois Carré, Gregory Ninot, Jean-Francois Toussaint, Daniel Rivière, Yves Boirie, Bruno Pereira, Angelo Tremblay, and Martine Duclos

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2022 French Report Card on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Children and Youth: From Continuous Alarming Conclusions to Encouraging Initiatives

Alicia Fillon, Jeremy Vanhelst, Pauline Genin, Benjamin Larras, Michéle Tardieu, Marion Porcherie, Maxime Luiggi, Salomé Aubert, Charlotte Verdot, Olivier Rey, Lena Lhuisset, Julien E. Bois, Guillaume Y. Millet, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel

Background: Scientific evidence and public health reports keep highlighting the continuous and alarming worldwide progression of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents. The present paper summarizes findings from the 2022 French Report Card (RC) on physical activity for children and youth and compares them to the 2016, 2018, and 2020 RCs. Methods: The 2022 edition of the French RC follows the standardized methodology established by the Active Healthy Kids Global Matrix. Ten physical activity indicators have been evaluated and graded based on the best available evidence coming from national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, government and nongovernment reports, and online information. The evaluation was also performed in children and adolescents with disabilities. Indicators were graded from A (high level of evidence) to F (very low level of evidence) or INC for incomplete. Results: The evaluated indicators received the following grades: overall physical activity: D−; organized sport participation and physical activity: C; active play: F; active transportation: C; sedentary behaviors: D−; family and peers: D; physical fitness: C; school: C−; community and the built environment: F; government: B. Conclusions: While this 2022 French RC shows progression for 7 out of the 10 indicators considered, it also underlines the continuous need for actions at the local, regional, and national levels to develop better surveillance systems and favor a long-term improvement of youth movement behaviors.