Alicia J. Johnson
Alicia J. Johnson and Meredith A. Whitley
Sport is increasingly used as a tool for development and peacebuilding to reach an array of populations (Hayhurst, 2009), including girls and women in the Two-Thirds World (Brady, 2005; Hayhurst, 2014; Saavedra, 2009). However, scholars have cautioned against a universal definition of sport considering its historical link to colonization (Darnell & Hayhurst, 2011; Saavedra, 2009) as well as the promotion of universal benefits of sport for girls (Brady, 2005; Larkin, Razack, & Moola, 2007). Therefore, a postcolonial feminist framework was employed to qualitatively explore how 12 secondary school girls in northern Uganda define sport. In addition, participants in this study identified the benefits that they and other girls and women receive from participating in sport. Semistructured interviews were conducted face-to-face and were transcribed, coded, and thematized by the researchers. Trustworthiness was established by engaging a peer debriefer from Uganda and critical awareness of researcher positionality through reflexivity. Results include how the participants defined sport and physical activity, some as a singular and others as a binary concept, and how girls benefit from participating in sport in northern Uganda. The identified benefits include aspects of health, social life, engagement, opportunities, socioemotional development, and competition. Many of these benefits are congruent with literature from within and outside of Uganda; however, the results also indicate a need for a deeper understanding of how communities define and benefit from sport where sport for development programs are delivered. Connections between the results and the postcolonial feminist framework, study limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
Austin Stair Calhoun, Nicole M. LaVoi, and Alicia Johnson
Sport scholars have connected heteronormativity and heterosexism to the creation of privilege for the dominant group. They also contend that the coverage and framing of female athletes and coaches promote heteronormativity across print, broadcast, and new media. To date, research examining heteronormativity and heterosexism on university-sponsored athletics Web sites is scarce. Using framing theory, online biographies of NCAA intercollegiate head coaches of 12 conferences (N = 1,902) were examined for textual representations of heteronormativity and heterosexism. Biographies were coded based on the presence or absence of personal text—and the presence or absence of family narratives. The data demonstrate a near absence of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered coaches, suggesting that digital content of intercollegiate athletic department Web sites reproduces dominant gender ideologies and is plagued by homophobia in overt and subtle ways.
Judy L. Van Raalte, Allen E. Cornelius, Elizabeth M. Mullin, Britton W. Brewer, Erika D. Van Dyke, Alicia J. Johnson, and Takehiro Iwatsuki
A series of studies was conducted by Senay et al. in 2010 to replicate and extend research indicating that self-posed questions have performance benefits. Studies 1–3 compared the effects of the self-posed interrogative question (“Will I?”) to declarative (“I will”) and control self-talk, and found no significant group differences in motivation, perceived exertion, or performance. In Studies 4–5, interrogative, declarative, and control self-talk primes were compared, and no outcome differences were found. In Study 6, the effects of self-talk on motivation, perceived exertion, and physical performance were assessed. The self-talk groups performed better and were more motivated than the control group, but declarative and interrogative groups did not differ from each other. Finally, meta-analyses of the six studies indicated no significant differences among conditions. These results highlight the value of replication and suggest that factors other than grammatical form of self-posed questions may drive the demonstrated relationships between self-talk and performance.