This article engages Rosi Braidotti’s writing on COVID-19 and affirmative ethics to expand understandings of the purpose of leisure and physical activity in women’s lives during the pandemic. Utilizing a feminist methodology informed by an ethics of affirmation, care, and creativity, the authors share insights from in-depth interviews with five dedicated Yoga practitioners living in Aotearoa New Zealand. Herein, they reveal how Yoga’s physical, mental, and ethical practices supported women as they navigated numerous challenges during the pandemic. The authors discuss the women’s complex experiences of affect, including shared exhaustion and compassion. Finally, they illustrate how experiences of discomfort encouraged some women to rethink collective responsibility and experiment with communal solutions to better support others in the face of uncertain futures.
Allison Jeffrey, Holly Thorpe, and Nida Ahmad
Allison Smith, Yan Gioseffi, and Jeffrey Graham
The Pointers are a soccer team that play in Division A of the Demolition League. The president of the Pointers is Fernando Garcia, and the head coach is Guille Muller. The league has a poor culture of firing coaches throughout the season. With only a couple of games left in the season, the Pointers are going through a losing streak, and there are rumors Muller may be fired if the team does not win their next game. Simultaneously, Muller is receiving coaching offers from other teams within the league. The ethical dilemma surrounding this case refers to two scenarios (a) whether it is ethical for the president to negotiate with another coach while there is still one employed and (b) whether it is ethical for a coach to negotiate with another club while employed. Drawing from research in sport management, this case focuses on three ethical theories to create discussion surrounding the scenario: Utilitarianism, Deontology, and Virtue Ethics. Undergraduate and graduate students in sport management, human resources, and those who seek to be in a leadership position will have the opportunity to understand, analyze, and discuss these three theories and apply them to real-life scenarios, such as hiring and firing employees.
Jeffrey Graham, Allison Smith, and Sylvia Trendafilova
Craig Johnson is an associate athletic director for marketing and promotions in an athletic department at the collegiate level. Through conversation, he has recently realized that the graduate students working in his department as interns and graduate assistants feel that balancing work, school, and a personal life is impossible. As a mentor for working in sport, as well as their direct manager, he feels something must be done to assist these graduate students in managing the work–life interface, but is unsure where to start. Drawing from research in sport management and from the general management literature, the case gives insight into the issues, outcomes, and theories that inform the work–life interface. Undergraduate and graduate students in human resource management or organizational behavior courses who work through this case will have an opportunity to contemplate, discuss, and develop strategies for managing the issues surrounding balancing work and a personal life.
Marty K. Baker, Jeffrey A. Graham, Allison Smith, and Zachary T. Smith
The purpose of this Coaching In paper is to share an overview of how sport-specific free play is incorporated into training and development recommendations for youth football (soccer) in various countries around the world. A review of 11 countries’ training programs was conducted, in which specific instances of training recommendations were examined to identify similarities and differences among nations. Results of our review suggest that not all of the programs emphasized children having fun, enjoying the game of football, or engaging in free play. For example, the program from England strongly emphasized outcome related abilities more than enjoyment or play related features of training. In contrast, the Italian, Canadian, and Australian documents discussed that allowing youth to play freely engaged children, ensured they were having fun, and encouraged a fascination with football. Programs recommending developmental games or free play often suggested the use of purposeful gameplay that resembled traditional competition or match-specific situations. Examining development recommendations across nations provides important insight into how youth sport development efforts are shaped around the world, especially as youth sport coaches seek to enhance youth engagement, while simultaneously helping youth improve their skills.
Jeffrey S. Brooks, Kody R. Campbell, Wayne Allison, Andrew M. Johnson, and James P. Dickey
This study quantified head impact exposures for Canadian university football players over their varsity career. Participants included 63 players from one team that participated in a minimum of 3 seasons between 2013 and 2018. A total of 127,192 head impacts were recorded from 258 practices and 65 games. The mean (SD) number of career impacts across all positions was 2023.1 (1296.4), with an average of 37.1 (20.3) impacts per game and 7.4 (4.4) impacts per practice. The number of head impacts that players experienced during their careers increased proportionally to the number of athletic exposures (P < .001, r = .57). Linebackers and defensive and offensive linemen experienced significantly more head impacts than defensive backs, quarterbacks, and wide receivers (P ≤ .014). Seniority did not significantly affect the number of head impacts a player experienced. Mean linear acceleration increased with years of seniority within defensive backs and offensive linemen (P ≤ .01). Rotational velocity increased with years of seniority within defensive backs, defensive and offensive linemen, running backs, and wide receivers (P < .05). These data characterize career metrics of head impact exposure for Canadian university football players and provide insights to reduce head impacts through rule modifications and contact regulations.
Steven T. Johnson, Clark Mundt, Weiyu Qiu, Allison Soprovich, Lisa Wozniak, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, and Jeffrey A. Johnson
To determine the effectiveness of an exercise specialist led lifestyle program for adults with type 2 diabetes in primary care.
Eligible participants from 4 primary care networks in Alberta, Canada were assigned to either a lifestyle program or a control group. The program targeted increased daily walking through individualized daily pedometer step goals for the first 3 months and brisk walking speed, along with substitution of low-relative to high-glycemic index foods over the next 3 months. The outcomes were daily steps, diet, and clinical markers, and were compared using random effects models.
198 participants were enrolled (102 in the intervention and 96 in the control). For all participants, (51% were women), mean age 59.5 (SD 8.3) years, A1c 6.8% (SD 1.1), BMI 33.6 kg/m2 (SD 6.5), systolic BP 125.6 mmHg (SD 16.2), glycemic index 51.7 (4.6), daily steps 5879 (SD 3130). Daily steps increased for the intervention compared with the control at 3-months (1292 [SD 2698] vs. 418 [SD 2458] and 6-months (1481 [SD 2631] vs. 336 [SD 2712]; adjusted P = .002). No significant differences were observed for diet or clinical outcomes.
A 6-month lifestyle program delivered in primary care by an exercise specialist can be effective for increasing daily walking among adults with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. This short-term increase in daily steps requires longer follow-up to estimate the potential impact on health outcomes.
Mindy Millard-Stafford, Jeffrey S. Becasen, Michael W. Beets, Allison J. Nihiser, Sarah M. Lee, and Janet E. Fulton
A systematic review of literature was conducted to examine the association between changes in health-related fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity and muscular strength/endurance) and chronic disease risk factors in overweight and/or obese youth. Studies published from 2000–2010 were included if the physical activity intervention was a randomized controlled trial and reported changes in fitness and health outcomes by direction and significance (p < .05) of the effect. Aerobic capacity improved in 91% and muscular fitness improved in 82% of measures reported. Nearly all studies (32 of 33) reported improvement in at least one fitness test. Changes in outcomes related to adiposity, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, metabolic, and mental/emotional health improved in 60%, 32%, 53%, 41%, and 33% of comparisons studied, respectively. In conclusion, overweight and obese youth can improve physical fitness across a variety of test measures. When fitness improves, beneficial health effects are observed in some, but not all chronic disease risk factors.