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Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Amanda E. Staiano

Background:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to pediatric 24-hour movement guidelines (moderate to vigorous physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep) and cardiometabolic risk factors.

Methods:

The sample included 357 white and African American children aged 5–18 years. Physical activity, television viewing, and sleep duration were measured using questionnaires, and the 24-hour movement guidelines were defined as ≥60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity on ≥5 days per week, ≤ 2 hours per day of television, and sleeping 9–11 hours per night (ages 5–13 y) or 8–10 hours per night (ages 14–18 y). Waist circumference, body fat, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose were measured in a clinical setting.

Results:

A total of 26.9% of the sample met none of the guidelines, whereas 36.4%, 28.3%, and 8.4% of the sample met 1, 2, or all 3 guidelines, respectively. There were significant associations between the number of guidelines met and body mass index, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, triglycerides, and glucose. There were no associations with blood pressure or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Conclusions:

Meeting more components of the 24-hour movement guidelines was associated with lower levels of obesity and several cardiometabolic risk factors. Future efforts should consider novel strategies to simultaneously improve physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep in children.

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Chelsea L. Kracht, Elizabeth K. Webster, and Amanda E. Staiano

Background: Little is known about variation in meeting the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines (including physical activity [PA], sleep, and screen time [ST]) in early childhood. The aim was to evaluate sociodemographic differences in meeting the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. Methods: Parents of 3–4 year old children reported sociodemographic information and ST. Sleep and PA were measured using accelerometry, and height and weight were objectively measured. The 24-Hour Movement Guidelines include daily PA (total PA: ≥3 h; including ≥1 h of moderate to vigorous), sleep (10–13 h), and ST (≤1 h). Meeting guidelines by age, sex, race, poverty level, and weight status were assessed using chi-square and linear regression models. Results: Of 107 children, 57% were white and 26% lived in households at or below the poverty level. Most children met the PA (91.5%) and sleep (86.9%) guidelines, but few met ST (14.0%) or all 3 (11.3%) guidelines. African American children and children who lived at or below the poverty level were less likely to meet the sleep, ST, and all 3 guidelines compared with others (P < .01 for all). There were no other differences. Conclusion: These results suggest future interventions should focus on reducing differences in movement, namely in sleep and ST.

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Valerie Carson, Amanda E. Staiano, and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

The purpose of this study was to describe self-reported levels of sitting, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), television viewing, and computer use in a representative sample of US adolescents and to make comparisons between sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and age groups. Results are based on 3556 adolescents aged 12-19 years from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants self-reported demographic, sitting, MVPA, television viewing (2011-2012 only) and computer use (2011-2012 only) variables. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index. On average, 7.5 hr/day were spent sitting and 34 median min/day were spent participating in MVPA, with females sitting more and participating in less MVPA than males across most demographic groups. Furthermore, obese males sat more and participated in less MVPA than nonoverweight males. Non-Hispanic white females participated in more MVPA than females in all other race/ethnicity groups. For television and computer, 38% and 22% of the sample engaged in >2 hr/day, respectively, and several race/ethnicity differences were observed. This study provides the first U.S. adolescent population estimates on self-reported sitting and updates population estimates on self-reported MVPA, television viewing and computer use. Continued efforts are needed to promote healthy active lifestyles in American adolescents.

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Clarice Martins, E. Kipling Webster, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, and Amanda E. Staiano

Fundamental motor skills (FMSs) are building blocks for future movements and may vary according to cultural context. Moreover, network analysis can identify which skills contribute most to an overall set of skills. This study identified the most influential FMS in samples of U.S. and Brazil preschoolers that may contribute to a pattern of adequate motor skills. Participants were 101 Brazilian (55 boys; 47.52 ± 5.57 months of age) and 236 U.S. preschoolers (108 boys; 49.56 ± 8.27 months of age), who provided completed FMS assessments (Test of Gross Motor Development—third edition). Confirmatory factorial analysis was used to test alternative models. To quantify the importance of each variable in the network, the expected influence was calculated, using the network analysis Mplus, Rstudio, and JASP (version 0.14.1). Reduced models with nine and 11 FMS for Brazilian and U.S. preschoolers, respectively, showed adequate adjustment indexes. Jump (1.412) and one-hand strike (0.982) in the Brazilian sample, and hop (1.927) and dribble (0.858) in the U.S. sample, showed the highest expected influence values. This study presents a new perspective to report which are the most important FMS in preschoolers of different sociocultural contexts, which act as building blocks for the acquisition of more complex motor skills.

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S. Nicole Fearnbach, Neil M. Johannsen, Corby K. Martin, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Robbie A. Beyl, Daniel S. Hsia, Owen T. Carmichael, and Amanda E. Staiano

Objective: To conduct a preliminary assessment of the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity, and cardiometabolic health using gold standard measures in diverse youth ranging from overweight to severe obesity. Methods: Twenty of 30 participants (mean [SD]; age 13.2 [1.8] y, 55% female, 45% African American) met the criteria for VO2peak during a graded cycle ergometer test to volitional fatigue. The body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (percentage of body fat, fat mass index, and fat-free mass) and magnetic resonance imaging (abdominal visceral and subcutaneous [SAT] adipose tissue). The VO2peak was expressed relative to fat-free mass. Fasting lipid levels, glycemic biomarkers, and vital signs were examined individually and used in a composite cardiometabolic risk score. Accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time were included as covariates. Results: VO2peak was negatively associated with abdominal SAT (r = −.49, P < .05), but not visceral adipose tissue or markers of cardiometabolic health. The association between SAT and VO2peak was partly explained by habitual sedentary time. Conclusions: We demonstrated a significant negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness and SAT in a diverse group of high-risk youth. The inclusion of rigorous, laboratory-based measures and youth with severe obesity extends the previous work in pediatric populations.

Open access

Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Christopher Bolling, Carly Wright, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Brian E. Saelens, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi I. Stanish, and Susan B. Sisson

Background:

The 2016 United States (U.S.) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth provides a comprehensive evaluation of physical activity levels and factors influencing physical activity among children and youth.

Methods:

The report card includes 10 indicators: Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Active Transportation, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Health-related Fitness, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments. Nationally representative data were used to evaluate the indicators using a standard grading rubric.

Results:

Sufficient data were available to assign grades to 7 of the indicators, and these ranged from B- for Community and the Built Environment to F for Active Transportation. Overall Physical Activity received a grade of D- due to the low prevalence of meeting physical activity guidelines. A grade of D was assigned to Health-related Fitness, reflecting the low prevalence of meeting cardiorespiratory fitness standards. Disparities across age, gender, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups were observed for several indicators.

Conclusions:

Continued poor grades suggest that additional work is required to provide opportunities for U.S. children to be physically active. The observed disparities indicate that special attention should be given to girls, minorities, and those from lower socioeconomic groups when implementing intervention strategies.

Open access

Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Jordan Carlson, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Susan B. Sisson, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi Stanish, Dianne S. Ward, Melicia Whitt-Glover, and Carly Wright