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Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Amanda E. Staiano

Background:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to pediatric 24-hour movement guidelines (moderate to vigorous physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep) and cardiometabolic risk factors.

Methods:

The sample included 357 white and African American children aged 5–18 years. Physical activity, television viewing, and sleep duration were measured using questionnaires, and the 24-hour movement guidelines were defined as ≥60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity on ≥5 days per week, ≤ 2 hours per day of television, and sleeping 9–11 hours per night (ages 5–13 y) or 8–10 hours per night (ages 14–18 y). Waist circumference, body fat, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose were measured in a clinical setting.

Results:

A total of 26.9% of the sample met none of the guidelines, whereas 36.4%, 28.3%, and 8.4% of the sample met 1, 2, or all 3 guidelines, respectively. There were significant associations between the number of guidelines met and body mass index, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, triglycerides, and glucose. There were no associations with blood pressure or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Conclusions:

Meeting more components of the 24-hour movement guidelines was associated with lower levels of obesity and several cardiometabolic risk factors. Future efforts should consider novel strategies to simultaneously improve physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep in children.

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Valerie Carson, Amanda E. Staiano and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

The purpose of this study was to describe self-reported levels of sitting, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), television viewing, and computer use in a representative sample of US adolescents and to make comparisons between sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and age groups. Results are based on 3556 adolescents aged 12-19 years from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants self-reported demographic, sitting, MVPA, television viewing (2011-2012 only) and computer use (2011-2012 only) variables. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index. On average, 7.5 hr/day were spent sitting and 34 median min/day were spent participating in MVPA, with females sitting more and participating in less MVPA than males across most demographic groups. Furthermore, obese males sat more and participated in less MVPA than nonoverweight males. Non-Hispanic white females participated in more MVPA than females in all other race/ethnicity groups. For television and computer, 38% and 22% of the sample engaged in >2 hr/day, respectively, and several race/ethnicity differences were observed. This study provides the first U.S. adolescent population estimates on self-reported sitting and updates population estimates on self-reported MVPA, television viewing and computer use. Continued efforts are needed to promote healthy active lifestyles in American adolescents.

Open access

Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Christopher Bolling, Carly Wright, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Brian E. Saelens, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi I. Stanish and Susan B. Sisson

Background:

The 2016 United States (U.S.) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth provides a comprehensive evaluation of physical activity levels and factors influencing physical activity among children and youth.

Methods:

The report card includes 10 indicators: Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Active Transportation, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Health-related Fitness, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments. Nationally representative data were used to evaluate the indicators using a standard grading rubric.

Results:

Sufficient data were available to assign grades to 7 of the indicators, and these ranged from B- for Community and the Built Environment to F for Active Transportation. Overall Physical Activity received a grade of D- due to the low prevalence of meeting physical activity guidelines. A grade of D was assigned to Health-related Fitness, reflecting the low prevalence of meeting cardiorespiratory fitness standards. Disparities across age, gender, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups were observed for several indicators.

Conclusions:

Continued poor grades suggest that additional work is required to provide opportunities for U.S. children to be physically active. The observed disparities indicate that special attention should be given to girls, minorities, and those from lower socioeconomic groups when implementing intervention strategies.

Open access

Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Jordan Carlson, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Susan B. Sisson, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi Stanish, Dianne S. Ward, Melicia Whitt-Glover and Carly Wright