Purposes: To examine the association between sedentary time (ST) and light physical activity (LPA), moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and body mass index (BMI), and to track these behaviors over a 3-year follow-up in young schoolchildren. Methods: The final sample was 64 children (female: n = 36 or 56.3%), enrolled in schools in Porto, Portugal. Height and mass of children were measured by standard methods, and BMI was then calculated. ST, LPA, and MVPA were measured by accelerometer. Changes (Δ) and relative changes (Δ%) between 2009/2010 and 2012/2013 of ST, LPA, MVPA, and BMI were computed. Multiple linear regression analyses were fit to predict Δ%ST (outcome variable), by Δ%LPA, Δ%MVPA, and Δ%BMI (exposure variables). Results: ST increased and LPA decreased significantly for whole sample (both Ps < .05). No statistically significant difference was found for MVPA over time. There were no differences for ΔST, ΔLPA, ΔMVPA, and ΔBMI between boys and girls. The Δ%LPA and Δ%MVPA were negatively associated with Δ%ST, whereas Δ%BMI was positively associated. Tracking coefficients varied from moderate to strong. Conclusions: Time spent in ST increases due to displacement of time in LPA. This reinforces public health measures and suggests the need for interventions focusing on offsetting the decline ST and increasing MVPA during childhood.
Amanda Santos, Sandra Silva-Santos, Michael Duncan, Maria João Lagoa, Susana Vale and Jorge Mota
Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Michael Duncan, Susana Vale and Jorge Mota
Introduction: Adequate gross motor coordination is essential for children participating in age-related physical activities and has an important role in maintaining sufficient physical activity levels during the life course. Aim: To examine the association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and gross motor coordination during sedentary behavior in early childhood (ages 3–6 y). Methods: The sample comprised 209 children aged 3–6 y. Gross motor coordination was assessed according to the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The battery to assess gross motor coordination comprised the aiming and catching, and balance components. MVPA was measured by accelerometry worn for 7 consecutive days (Monday to Sunday). Results: Our data indicated that 31.5% of the sample had low, 32.5% medium, and 36.0% high gross motor coordination. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that MVPA was positively associated with gross motor coordination, adjusted for gender and sedentary behavior. Conclusions: Preschoolers with high gross motor coordination spend more time in MVPA. Gross motor coordination development should therefore be a key strategy in childhood interventions aiming to promote physical activity.
Beatriz Caruso Soares, Jéssica Maria Ribeiro Bacha, Daniel Donadio Mello, Emerson Galves Moretto, Tatiana Fonseca, Karina Santos Vieira, Amanda Franchi de Lima, Belinda Lange, Camila Torriani-Pasin, Roseli de Deus Lopes and José Eduardo Pompeu
Objective: To analyze the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of immersive virtual tasks. Methods: The authors recruited 11 young adults and 10 older adults. The participants performed three virtual reaching tasks while walking on a virtual path. The descriptive analysis and comparison between participants were performed using the Mann–Whitney U test and chi-square test for nonparametric and nominal variables, respectively. The authors also used analysis of variance for a between-groups comparison for normal variables. Results: Twenty percent of older adults and 81.8% of young adults completed all three tasks (chi-square test; p = .005). Both groups reported minor symptoms, with no significant differences. The older adults were more motivated to practice the tasks (Mann–Whitney U test; p = .015) and would be more likely to suggest them to others (chi-square test; p = .034). Conclusion: All three tasks were feasible for young adults. All participants, except for one, had cybersickness. The symptoms were mostly mild and subsided once the interaction was complete.