Millennial college students are typically digital natives who prefer experiential and active learning. This preference is in contrast to the traditional lecture method of teaching in higher education. Flipped instruction provides instructors with a means to integrate technology into their courses and expand active-learning opportunities. In flipped courses, students engage with technology-assisted learning opportunities outside the classroom. Corresponding in-class active-learning opportunities encourage students to apply foundational knowledge. This article summarizes research and provides an authentic case example to illustrate the way in which flipped instruction was applied in a physical education teacher education course to expand learning opportunities in the field.
Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods
David N. Daum and Amelia M. Woods
K-12 online physical education (OLPE) is as an educational opportunity in at least 30 states in the US (NASPE, 2006; 2010; 2012). The purpose of this study was to examine physical education teacher educators’ perceptions toward and understanding of K-12 OLPE. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (1986) served as the theoretical framework for this study. Data were collected utilizing semistructured open-ended interviews. Participants (N = 25) were current physical education teacher education (PETE) faculty members at universities granting bachelor’s degrees in physical education certification. Participants believed that NASPE (2004) National Physical Education Standards could be met online, except for Standard 1, which relates to motor skill competency. Participants were almost unanimous in their beliefs that OLPE should not be designed for elementary-aged children, but is viable at the high school level. This study provided initial insight into PETE faculty members’ knowledge about and perceptions of K-12 OLPE, however additional research is warranted.
Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods and Darla M. Castelli
Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods and Darla M. Castelli
Kathy C. Graham, Karen E. French and Amelia M. Woods
The ability to observe and interpret events during instruction is thought to be an important dimension of effective teachers. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to observe and interpret teaching physical education at different stages of expertise. Ten freshman preservice students, 7 experienced junior students, and 2 teacher educators served as subjects. Each subject viewed a 15-minute videotaped lesson on basketball dribbling taught to approximately 20 third-grade students. Subjects were instructed to observe the lesson, take notes, and write a description or evaluation of what they observed during the lesson. Experienced students wrote substantially more evaluative interpretations than novice preservice students. The interpretations of the experienced preservice students were similar to the teacher educators in the focus of observation and the use of a technical language. However, teacher educators’ interpretations were more organized and were focused more on lesson occurrences that influenced students’ motor-skill performance.
Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder and Amelia Mays Woods
Online and blended instruction have emerged as popular teaching methods in the K–12 environment. The asynchronous characteristics of these methods represent potential for improved learning opportunities in physical education. Therefore, the purpose of this scoping review was to provide a comprehensive overview of research, commentary, and practical articles related to the use of these methods in K–12 physical education. Method: PRISMA-ScR guidelines directed this review, and 5 databases were searched for English-language articles. Results: Twenty-four articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were research-based and 10 were commentary or practical articles. Most related research has been conducted in secondary-school environments. Minimal learning-related outcomes were reported across studies. Evidence provided in commentary and practical articles is largely anecdotal and based on research from other subject areas. Conclusions: Systematic research related to the design, adoption, and implementation of online and blended instruction in physical education is warranted.
Heather E. Erwin, Amelia Mays Woods, Martha K. Woods and Darla M. Castelli
Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Kim C. Graber, Amelia M. Woods, Tom Templin, Mike Metzler and Naiman A. Khan
Purpose: To address the obesity epidemic and promote children’s health; several health organizations recommend that schools develop comprehensive programs designed to promote physical activity and health behavior. Given a lack of empirical investigation, the authors sought to understand how physical education programs are perceived within such initiatives. Methods: A case study was conducted to acquire insights of key stakeholders (N = 67) in a school nationally recognized for promoting physical activity and health. Data were collected using formal interviews, informal interviews, observations, and document analysis. Data were analyzed utilizing grounded theory and constant comparison. Results: Physical education was viewed positively by stakeholders; however, physical educators felt marginalized within the school infrastructure. Systemic barriers to program quality included lack of leadership, feelings of marginalization, and insufficient funding and collaboration. Discussion: Findings raise concerns about the difficulty of sustaining a high-quality physical education program even in a school recognized for significant support of physical activity.
Kathy C. Graham, Richard C. Hohn, Peter H. Werner and Amelia M. Woods
The purpose of this study was to compare conceptions of teaching of different groups of individuals associated with a university physical education teacher education (PETE) program. These individuals were 6 prospective PETE students, 4 PETE student teachers, and 4 cooperating teachers in the physical education department’s Clinical Model Program. The intent was to assess subjects’ conceptions, values, and beliefs about teaching relative to the seven categories of the knowledge base identified by Shulman (1987). Data were collected through use of a structured interview with frequent probes. Results revealed that teaching conceptions of prospective PETE students differed considerably from those of the other two groups. In addition, conceptions of student teachers and clinical model teachers more closely resembled those aspects emphasized in the teacher education program. Results of this exploratory study suggest questions for future research.
Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Chad M. Killian, K. Andrew R. Richards and Jesse L. Rhoades
Purpose: The landscape of physical education has shifted in the 30 years since Metzler and Freedman’s seminal study examining the demographics of physical education teacher education faculty. Changes in the structure of physical education and academia justify an updated investigation, with particular emphasis on the gender and institutional affiliation of faculty. Methods: An expanded and validated version of Metzler and Freedman’s survey was e-mailed to 908 physical education teacher education faculty from 505 U.S. institutions. A response rate of 46.21% was achieved. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics to examine differences based on gender and institutional affiliation. Results: Gender salary disparities have decreased, whereas teaching experience and qualifications of faculty have increased. Corresponding increases in research productivity were notably evident. Discussion/Conclusion: Faculty members remain predominately European American, publication output has increased, more institutions are hiring nontenure-track faculty, and perceptions of support for physical education are lower than in 1985.