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Following the Yellow Brick Road: A Teacher’s Journey along the Proverbial Career Path

Susan K. Lynn and Amelia Mays Woods

The Fessler and Christensen (1992) teacher career cycle model provides the theoretical framework for this case study incorporating a narrative design nested within a larger research project examining six teachers’ journey across the career cycle (Woods & Earls, 1995; Woods & Lynn, 2001). The current case study sought to gain a greater understanding of why one teacher, Patsy, was unable to negotiate environmental hurdles that are commonplace in physical education and how these factors were being negotiated as a classroom teacher. Data sources included: seven interviews with the participant, multiple interviews with her principals, spouse, and three former university teacher educators, field notes from live lesson observations, and related documents. An interpretative framework was used to understand the perceptions and meanings Patsy gave to her experiences and revealed that she reported being both positively and negatively affected by most of the personal and organizational environmental factors in the teacher career cycle model. Viewing Patsy’s teaching career through the lens of the career cycle provides insight into areas of change necessary to motivate and retain quality physical education teachers.

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National Board Certified Physical Educators: Background Characteristics, Subjective Warrants, and Motivations

Amelia Mays Woods and Jesse Lee Rhoades

This study examined National Board Certified Physical Education Teacher’s (NBCPETs) demographic characteristics, recalled subjective warrants for entrance into the profession, and reasons for seeking this advanced certification. An extensive search for approximately 1,200 NBCPETs resulted in contact information for 819 NBCPETs. All were sent a demographic questionnaire which 334 returned, resulting in a 41% return rate. Sixty five were randomly selected and participated in qualitative interviews. The results indicate that NBCPETs are predominantly female (79%), Caucasian (78.9%), hold masters degrees (71.1%), and work in the elementary setting (55.1%). The mean age is 45 years, with about 20 years of teaching experience. Several themes related to subjective warrant emerged including career pursuit because of: a joy of working with and helping children; continued association with sport and physical activity; lack of aspirations to coach; and enjoyment of physical activity. The most frequent reasons for pursuit of NBC were related to procurement of financial incentives, an attempt to confront the challenge, and a desire to develop professionally.

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National Board Certified Physical Education Teachers Task Presentations and Learning Environments

Jesse Lee Rhoades and Amelia Mays Woods

This study examined National Board Certified Physical Education Teachers’ (NBCPET) instructional practices. Socialization theory guided this study. Data were collected on six NBCPETs using systematic observations and open-ended interviews. Each teacher was observed two full days, with data gathered from eight to 11 lessons for each teacher. Teachers participated in two interviews lasting approximately 45 min. Constant comparative methods were used to identify emergent themes. Systematic observations revealed that participants achieved an average score of 76.4 on the Qualitative Measures of Teacher Performance Scale. Academic Learning Time-Physical Education data showed that students of the NBCPETs, on average, experienced 38% motor appropriate practice time, 4.4% motor inappropriate practice time, and 3.8% off-task time during observed classes. Perceived change as a result of the National Board Certification process emerged as a theme through the data analysis. The results imply that this advanced certification process served as a positive agent of socialization.

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Chapter 1: PETE Recruitment and Retention: Current State of Affairs

Amelia Mays Woods and Suzan F. Ayers

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Chapter 5: Recruitment in PETE: Survey Results and Discussion

Suzan F. Ayers and Amelia Mays Woods

Background/Purpose: This aspect of this study examined physical education teacher education (PETE) program coordinators’ perspectives on their role in student recruitment, including common recruitment strategies and their effectiveness, perceived barriers to engaging in program recruitment, and commonly used marketing strategies. Method: Data were collected from 175 PETE program coordinators through the online survey described fully in Chapter 4 of this monograph. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and one-way analyses of variance. Results: Strategies perceived as effective in recruiting high school students were moderately associated with those most often implemented (r = .46–.50). Some limited differences by Carnegie level were found related to reported barriers to participation in recruitment activities. Discussion/Conclusion: This study reveals general consistency between PETE coordinators’ perceptions of the most effective and frequently used recruitment strategies to attract students into PETE initial licensure programs. Strategies, barriers, and suggested future directions align with much of the PETE recruitment literature.

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Expanding Learning Opportunities in Kinesiology Through the Use of Flipped Instruction

Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods

Millennial college students are typically digital natives who prefer experiential and active learning. This preference is in contrast to the traditional lecture method of teaching in higher education. Flipped instruction provides instructors with a means to integrate technology into their courses and expand active-learning opportunities. In flipped courses, students engage with technology-assisted learning opportunities outside the classroom. Corresponding in-class active-learning opportunities encourage students to apply foundational knowledge. This article summarizes research and provides an authentic case example to illustrate the way in which flipped instruction was applied in a physical education teacher education course to expand learning opportunities in the field.

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Children’s Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

Amelia Mays Woods, Kim Graber, and David Daum

The benefits of recess can be reaped by all students regardless of socioeconomic status, race, or gender and at relatively little cost. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) variables related to the recess PA patterns of third and fourth grade children and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA (friends and parents). Data were collected on students (N = 115) utilizing the System of Observing Children’s Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP) instrument. In addition, each child was interviewed during the recess period in which SOCARP was completed. Results found that boys spent significantly more time being very active (t (95.64) = 3.252, d = .62, p < .008) than girls and preferred sport activities (t = (73.62) 5.64, d = 1.14, p < .0125) in large groups (t (69.34) = 4.036, d = .83, p < .0125). Meanwhile, girls preferred locomotor activities (t (113) = 3.19, d = .60, p < .0125), sedentary activities (t (113) = 2.829, d = .53, p < .0125) and smaller groups (t (112.63) = 4.259, d = .79, p < .0125). All 115 participants indicated that they wanted to spend time with their friends during recess.

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Impact of Wellness Legislation on Comprehensive School Health Programs

Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, and Jamie A. O’Connor

In 2004, Congress passed the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act that requires schools to implement a wellness plan. Grounded in Ecological Systems Theory (EST) (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, 1979), the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the legislation, discover what measures have been taken to enact the legislation, gauge how the legislation has impacted the work environment of physical educators, and better understand EST in relation to the legislation at the level of the microsystem. In total, 51 individuals participated in in-depth interviews that were triangulated and inductively/deductively coded. The results indicate that (a) principals and physical education teachers had limited knowledge of the plan, (b) school nutrition programs profited more than physical education, (c) physical education is becoming less marginalized, (d) physical education teachers missed an opportunity to use the legislation for program improvement, and (e) individuals at different levels of the system need to interact.

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A Preface from the Guest Editors

Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, and Darla M. Castelli

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Chapter 1: Setting the Stage—Research into Physical Activity Relationships and Children’s Progress Toward Achievement of the National Standards

Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, and Darla M. Castelli