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An Interdisciplinary Approach to a Well-Rounded Campus Healthcare Delivery System

Shari D. Bartz-Smith and Amy Campbell

An injury care clinic (ICC) as part of a comprehensive campus-wide healthcare system is a cost-effective way to optimize the flow of patient care utilizing a collaborative model of healthcare in a time of physician shortage. Services include: basic first aid, injury evaluation, acute injury care, basic rehabilitation, preventative techniques including taping and stretching, and professional referrals. The ICC provides care to previously underserved campus community members, focusing on: club sport and intramural athletes, recreation center users, and the general student body, in addition to faculty and staff, going beyond the varsity athlete. The ICC functions through the efforts of athletic trainers, physicians, fitness specialists, administrators, faculty, and students across disciplines. After 3 years, the clinic has serviced more than 2,500 unique patients exceeding 4,800 patient encounters, demonstrating outcomes that access to affordable healthcare options with a licensed healthcare provider are warranted and needed.

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Web-Based Behavioral Intervention Increases Maternal Exercise but Does Not Prevent Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in Previously Sedentary Women

Katie Smith, L. Lanningham-Foster, Amy Welch, and Christina Campbell


Innovative methods are warranted to optimize prenatal outcomes. This study’s objective was to determine if a web-based behavioral intervention (BI) can prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) by increasing physical activity (PA).


Participants were randomized to usual care (UC; n = 21) or BI (n = 24) between 10 to 14 weeks gestation. GWG, PA, and diet were assessed at baseline, mid-, and late pregnancy.


No differences in GWG or adherence to GWG recommendations presented between groups. Total UC MET-minutes significantly decreased from baseline to late-pregnancy (1,234 ± 372 MET-minutes, P = .013). Mid-pregnancy sustained PA was greater for BI than UC (20-minute PA bouts: 122 ± 106 vs. 46 ± 48 minutes/week, P = .005; 30-minute PA bouts: 74 ± 70 vs. 14 ± 24 minutes/week, P < .001), and greater for BI at mid-pregnancy compared with baseline (20-minute PA bouts: 61.3 ± 21.9; 30-minute PA bouts: 39.6 ± 14.8, both P < .05). BI energy intake at mid-pregnancy significantly increased from baseline (336 ± 127 kcals, P = .04) and was significantly greater than UC (2,503 ± 703 vs. 1,894 ± 594, P = .005).


Sedentary pregnant women should increase PA but may need additional dietary counseling to prevent excessive GWG.

Open access

Should We Use Activity Tracker Data From Smartphones and Wearables to Understand Population Physical Activity Patterns?

Jacqueline L. Mair, Lawrence D. Hayes, Amy K. Campbell, and Nicholas Sculthorpe

Researchers, practitioners, and public health organizations from around the world are becoming increasingly interested in using data from consumer-grade devices such as smartphones and wearable activity trackers to measure physical activity (PA). Indeed, large-scale, easily accessible, and autonomous data collection concerning PA as well as other health behaviors is becoming ever more attractive. There are several benefits of using consumer-grade devices to collect PA data including the ability to obtain big data, retrospectively as well as prospectively, and to understand individual-level PA patterns over time and in response to natural events. However, there are challenges related to representativeness, data access, and proprietary algorithms that, at present, limit the utility of this data in understanding population-level PA. In this brief report we aim to highlight the benefits, as well as the limitations, of using existing data from smartphones and wearable activity trackers to understand large-scale PA patterns and stimulate discussion among the scientific community on what the future holds with respect to PA measurement and surveillance.

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Improved Physical Health in Middle-Older Aged Golf Caddies Following 24 Weeks of High-Volume Physical Activity

Graeme G. Sorbie, Ashley K. Williams, Sophie E. Carter, Amy K. Campbell, Jonathan Glen, David Lavallee, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Andrew Murray, and Alexander J. Beaumont

Background: The physical demands of golf caddying, including walking while carrying a golf bag, may potentially affect body composition, and markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal health. Therefore, this study examined the impact of 24 weeks of caddying on physical health in middle-older aged males. Methods: Eleven full-time experienced male caddies (age: 59 [8] y; caddying experience: 14 [12] y) were recruited from a local golf course. The following were assessed at preseason and after 24 weeks of caddying (March–September 2022): body composition, heart rate, blood pressure, blood lipids, and performance tests (static and dynamic balance, strength, and submaximal fitness). Physical activity (PA) levels were assessed at preseason and at the mid-point of the caddying season. Across the caddying season, participants completed a monthly average of 24.0 (3.8) rounds. Results: Following the caddying season, improvements in static balance (Δ = 13.5 s), dynamic balance (Δ = −1.8 s), and lower back absolute strength (Δ = 112.8 N), and muscle quality (Δ = 2.0 N·kg−1) were observed (all P < .05). Additionally, blood lipids, including total cholesterol (Δ = −0.6 mmol·L−1), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Δ = 0.1 mmol·L−1), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Δ = −0.6 mmol·L−1) (all P < .05), and body composition, including body mass (Δ = −2.7 kg), fat mass (Δ = −1.9 kg), fat percentage (Δ = −1.4%), fat-to-muscle ratio (Δ = −0.03), and body mass index (Δ = −0.9 kg·m−2) (all P < .05) improved. Caddying did not offer beneficial changes to cardiovascular variables or cardiorespiratory fitness (P > .05), while coronary heart disease risk score decreased (Δ = −3.3%) (P < .05). In relation to PA, light- (Δ = 145 min) and moderate-intensity (Δ = 71 min) PA, moderate to vigorous PA (Δ = 73 min), and total PA (Δ = 218 min) between preseason and the mid-point of the caddying season increased, while sedentary time (Δ = −172 min) decreased (all P < .05). Conclusion: Golf caddying can provide several physical health benefits such as improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health, lower back absolute strength, and static and dynamic balance. The physical health improvements that caddying offers is likely contributed to by increased PA volume and intensity through walking on the golf course. Therefore, caddying may represent a feasible model for increasing PA volume and intensity and achieve physical health–related benefits.