Gain-framed messages are more effective at promoting physical activity than loss-framed messages. However, the mechanism through which this effect occurs is unclear. The current experiment examined the effects of message framing on variables described in the communication behavior change model (McGuire, 1989), as well as the mediating effects of these variables on the message-frame–behavior relationship. Sixty low-to-moderately active women viewed 20 gain- or loss-framed ads and five control ads while their eye movements were recorded via eye tracking. The gain-framed ads attracted greater attention, ps < .05; produced more positive attitudes, p = .06; were better recalled, p < .001; influenced decisions to be active, p = .07; and had an immediate and delayed impact on behavior, ps < .05, compared with the loss-framed messages. Mediation analyses failed to reveal any significant effects. This study demonstrates the effects of framed messages on several outcomes; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear.
Erin Berenbaum and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Celina H. Shirazipour and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
A gap in knowledge exists regarding how to maintain physical activity (PA) for individuals with acquired disabilities following initial introductory experiences. The current study aimed to contribute to filling this gap by exploring the PA pathways of military veterans with a physical disability, particularly those who maintain long-term PA, from impairment to the present. Veterans with a physical disability (N = 18) participated in interviews exploring their PA history and experiences. A reflexive thematic analysis was conducted to generate common pathways in PA participation, as well as to examine which elements of participation supported PA maintenance. Three long-term pathways were identified—two parasport pathways and one recreational PA pathway. Four elements of participation (i.e., mastery, challenge, belongingness, meaning) supported to maintain PA at key junctures. This knowledge provides further understanding of how to promote long-term PA for individuals with acquired disabilities and can support advancements in theory, as well as program development.
Emma Streatch, Natasha Bruno, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Quality experiences in sport programming for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can promote physical and psychosocial benefits and long-term quality participation (QP). Unfortunately, children with ASD often experience sport participation barriers and, consequently, participate less in sport compared with children without disabilities. This study investigated QP priorities and strategies that could foster QP for children with ASD. Caregivers (n = 13), volunteers (n = 26), and staff (n = 14) involved in sport programming for children with ASD rated experiential elements of QP using the Measure of Experiential Aspects of Participation. In addition , a two-round Delphi survey with staff (Round 1: n = 11; Round 2: n = 13) generated 22 strategies for promoting QP—each rated highly with regard to importance (5.69–6.85 on a 7-point scale). Strategies were substantiated with published research evidence. Findings informed the development of a QP tool designed to help instructors implement identified strategies in hopes of improving sport experiences for children with ASD.
Lauren Handler, Emily M. Tennant, Guy Faulkner, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth (age 5–17 yr) consolidate evidence-informed daily requirements for physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep into 1 comprehensive resource. The primary objective of this study was to explore how parents of children and youth with disabilities (CYWD) perceive the guidelines. The secondary objective was to explore whether parents consider the guideline branding to be inclusive. A total of 15 mothers of CYWD participated in one 60-min semistructured interview, either in person or by telephone. The diffusion-of-innovation theory provided a theoretical basis for the interview guide. Mothers’ perspectives of the guidelines and branding are represented as seven themes. The results indicate that the guidelines and the branding are not inclusive or compatible with the abilities and needs of CYWD. Findings from this study provide a foundation for ongoing knowledge-translation activities aiming to address these limitations. Further revisions are necessary to promote full inclusion and uptake of the guidelines among CYWD.
Celina H. Shirazipour, Madelaine Meehan, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
The Invictus Games are a parasport competition for service members and veterans with illnesses and injuries. The 2014 Games were aired by the BBC, for a total of 12 hr of coverage. This study aimed to investigate what messages were conveyed regarding parasport for veterans during the BBC’s Invictus Games broadcast. A content analysis was conducted. Five qualitative themes were identified: sport as rehabilitation, the promotion of ability over disability, the social environment, key outcomes of participation, and the importance of competition. Quantitative results indicated that 2 segment types accounted for the majority of the broadcast: sport coverage (50.57%) and athlete experiences (12.56%). Around half of the coverage focused on participants with a physical disability (51.62%). The findings demonstrate key similarities to and differences from previous explorations of parasport media coverage, with the needs of the event and athlete population potentially influencing the broadcast.
Janet A. Lawson, Jennifer Turnnidge, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Nonformal learning opportunities, such as accessing text-based online resources, are an important means of developing parasport coaches’ knowledge of how to coach. However, the focus of such resources, as well as their quality and quantity, are unknown. Using an adapted version of Lefebvre, Evans, Turnnidge, Gainforth, and Côté’s taxonomy of coach development programs, the authors explored and cataloged text-based online resources for parasport coaches identified through a broad Internet search. In addition, the technical quality of these resources was evaluated. After cataloguing and evaluating 136 resources, professional knowledge domains, specifically pedagogy and planning, were identified as the most commonly targeted domains of focus. The least frequently cited professional domains of focus were maltreatment, movement fundamentals, and preventative health and health promotion. Limited resources addressed interpersonal and intrapersonal domains of focus. Resource quality varied greatly, but the overall quality was low indicating that increasing the technical quality of online resources should be prioritized in the future.
Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, and Christopher R. West
Marie-Josée Perrier, Shaelyn M. Strachan, Brett Smith, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Individuals with acquired physical disabilities report lower levels of athletic identity. The objective of this study was to further explore why athletic identity may be lost or (re)developed after acquiring a physical disability. Seven women and four men (range = 28–60 years) participated in approximately 1-hour-long semi-structured interviews; data were subjected to a narrative analysis. The structural analysis revealed three narrative types. The nonathlete narrative described physical changes in the body as reasons for diminished athletic identity. The athlete as a future self primarily focused on present sport behavior and performance goals such that behavior changes diminished athletic identity. The present self as athlete narrative type focused on the aspects of their present sport involvement, such as feedback from other athletes and skill development, which supported their athletic identity. Implications of these narrative types with respect to sport promotion among people with acquired physical disabilities are discussed.
Shane N. Sweet, Lawrence R. Brawley, Alexandra Hatchell, Heather L. Gainforth, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Given the positive influence of action planning on physical activity, persuasive messages could be designed to promote action planning. The purpose of this paper was to test action planning messages in two studies. Participants were allocated to one of two message groups, reading either a physical activity only or physical activity plus action planning message (Study 1) and either a gain-framed or loss-framed action planning message (Study 2). The percent of individuals who created an action plan and the quality of the plans were evaluated. In Study 1, individuals in the physical activity plus action planning group created as many action plans as the physical activity only group, but their plans were higher quality. In Study 2, Week 2 differences between the gain- and loss-framed message groups were found for action planning. To our knowledge, these studies were the first to investigate message-induced action planning as a behavior. More research is needed to optimize these messages.
Isabelle Birchall, Janet A. Lawson, Toni L. Williams, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Undergoing classification can be a difficult experience for athletes with disabilities, yet coaches may support athletes during this event. However, research has yet to examine either coaches’ roles during classification or how coaches learn to navigate this unique aspect of parasport. We purposed to explore parasport coaches’ roles during classification as well as the ways in which coaches learn about classification. Twelve Canadian high-performance coaches representing eight parasports participated in semistructured interviews. Inductive reflexive thematic analysis of the transcripts was conducted. Results show coaches view their role as intuitive and centered on preparing the athlete, ensuring fairness, and reframing classification outcomes. The ways coaches learned about classification varied, but coaches agreed there is a general lack of structured resources available to coaches interested in learning about classification. In addition to learning about classification, coaches valued understanding the athlete and their impairment to effectively fulfill their coaching roles.