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  • Author: Anamaria S. Oliveira x
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Denise M. Rossi, Renan A. Resende, Gisele H. Hotta, Sérgio T. da Fonseca and Anamaria S. de Oliveira

Altered scapular movement in subacromial pain syndrome has been demonstrated using discrete data reduction approach. However, this approach does not consider the data collinearity and variability, and scapular translations are poorly investigated in symptomatic individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the scapular rotation and translation of asymptomatic individuals and those with subacromial pain syndrome during arm motions using principal component analysis. Scapulothoracic kinematics were evaluated in 47 participants with subacromial pain syndrome and 50 asymptomatic individuals. The symptomatic group had increased range of scapular anterior/posterior tilt during arm elevation (P = .01, effect size = .59) and arm lowering (P < .01, effect size = .61), and increased range of scapular forward/backward translation during arm lowering (P < .01, effect size = .60) compared with the asymptomatic group. In addition, the symptomatic group had a reduced difference in anterior tilt angular velocities between the early-arm and mid-arm lowering phases and between the mid- and late-arm lowering phases compared with the asymptomatic group (P = .03, effect size = .44). This study demonstrated that scapular anterior/posterior tilt motion and angular velocity and scapular forward/backward translation of symptomatic individuals were different from asymptomatic individuals when considering the entire arm movement.

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Helga T. Tucci, Lilian R. Felicio, Kevin J. McQuade, Debora Bevilaqua-Grossi, Paula Maria Ferreira Camarini and Anamaria S. Oliveira


The closed kinetic chain upper-extremity stability (CKCUES) test is a functional test for the upper extremity performed in the push-up position, where individuals support their body weight on 1 hand placed on the ground and swing the opposite hand until touching the hand on the ground, then switch hands and repeat the process as fast as possible for 15 s.


To study scapular kinematic and kinetic measures during the CKCUES test for 3 different distances between hands.






30 healthy individuals (15 male, 15 female).

Main Outcome Measures:

Participants performed 3 repetitions of the test at 3 distance conditions: original (36 in), interacromial, and 150% interacromial distance between hands. Participants completed a questionnaire on pain intensity and perceived exertion before and after the procedures. Scapular internal/external rotation, upward/downward rotation, and posterior/anterior tilting kinematics and kinetic data on maximum force and time to maximum force were measured bilaterally in all participants. Percentage of body weight on upper extremities was calculated. Data analyses were based on the total numbers of hand touches performed for each distance condition, and scapular kinematics and kinetic values were averaged over the 3 trials. Scapular kinematics, maximum force, and time to maximum force were compared for the 3 distance conditions within each gender. Significance level was set at α = .05.


Scapular internal rotation, posterior tilting, and upward rotation were significantly greater in the dominant side for both genders. Scapular upward rotation was significantly greater in original distance than interacromial distance in swing phase. Time to maximum force in women was significantly greater in the dominant side.


CKCUES test kinematic and kinetic measures were not different among 3 conditions based on distance between hands. However, the test might not be suitable for initial or mild-level rehabilitation due to its challenging requirements.