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Anders Raustorp and Yvonne Ekroth

Background:

Tracking refers to the tendency for an individual to maintain their rank within a group over time.

Purpose:

To identify levels of pedometer determined physical activity and explore tracking over 10-year follow up period.

Methods:

In October of 2000, 2003, 2005, and 2010, data of physical activity as steps/day was measured with Yamax SW-200 Tokyo, Japan for 4 consecutive schooldays in 40 (19 females) Swedish individuals (mean age 12.7 in 2000).

Results:

In boys a decrease of mean step/day occurred between baseline and the 3-year (P < .001), the 5-year (P < .001) and the 10-year follow-up (P < .014). A significant moderate tracking occurred in those at baseline classified insufficient active, both over the 3- to 5-year span (rs = 0.56, P = .005) and the 0- to 10-year span (rs = 0.47, P = .05).

Conclusion:

The significant decrease of physical activity, as steps/day, in males at early adolescent seems to level out during late adolescence and early adulthood. Further, youth classified insufficient active according to published BMI reference standards at the baseline measures showed a significant moderate tracking over the 10-year follow-up period.

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Anders Raustorp and Andreas Fröberg

Background: The aims of this study were to explore the effect of time and long-termed tracking on pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) from early adolescent to the 30s. Methods: PA was measured with pedometers [Yamax™ (SW-200)] during 2000 (time 1), 2003 (time 2), 2005 (time 3), 2010 (time 4), and 2016 (time 5). Anthropometric data were collected during time 1. Data from 59 participants (n = 32 males) were analyzed from early adolescent (time 1) to the 30s (time 5). Results: There was an effect of time for males (P = .005, η2 = .76) and females (P = .002, η2 = .50) where steps per day decreased. Males steps per day tracked between time 1 and time 2 (r = .41, P = .021), time 1 and time 3 (r = .38, P = .03), time 3 and time 4 (r = .42, P = .015), and time 4 and time 5 (r = .50, P = .003). Females steps per day tracked between time 4 and time 5 (r = .39, P = .04). Males took more steps per day than females during time 1 (P = .018), whereas females took more steps per day during time 2 (P = .043) and time 3 (P = .03). Conclusion: There was a significant effect of time, where steps per day decreased between the 5 times of measurement. Steps per day tracked low to moderate in the short time span, yet tracked nonsignificantly from early adolescent to the 30s.

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Anders Raustorp and Yvonne Ekroth

Background:

To explore the secular trends (time change) of pedometer-determined physical activity (steps per day) in Swedish young adolescents 13 to 14 years of age from 2000 to 2008.

Methods:

The study was analyzed between 2 cross-sectional cohorts carried out in October 2000 (235, 111 girls) and October 2008 (186, 107 girls) in the same school, using identical procedures. Data of mean steps per day were collected during 4 consecutive weekdays (sealed pedometer Yamax SW-200 Tokyo, Japan) and in addition height and weight were measured.

Results:

When comparing cohort 2000 with cohort 2008 no significant difference in physical activity were found neither among girls (12,989 vs 13,338 [t = −0.98, P < .325]) nor boys (15,623 vs 15,174 [t= 0.78, P = .436]). The share of girls and boys meeting weight control recommendations was none significantly higher in 2008 both among girls (68% versus 62%) and among boys (69% versus 65%).

Conclusion:

There was no significant difference of young adolescents’ physical activity during school weekdays in 2008 compared with 2000. This stabilized physical activity level, in an internationally comparison regarded as high, is promising. Enhanced focus on physical activity in society and at school might have influenced the result.

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Anders Raustorp, Kjell Svensson and Thommy Perlinger

Tracking refers to the tendency for individuals to maintain their rank in a group over time. The authors explored tracking of pedometer-determined physical activity. In October of 2000, 2003, and 2005, data of physical activity as steps per day were collected with sealed Yamax SW-200 pedometers (Tokyo, Japan) for 4 consecutive schooldays in 97 (46 boys and 51 girls) Swedish adolescents (mean age 12.7 in 2000). In general, tracking of pedometer-determined physical activity was low to moderate during adolescence. A sex difference, with boys expressing higher tracking, was seen. Moderate tracking was seen in the individuals who, according to recommendations, were insufficiently active.

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Peter Pagels, Anders Raustorp, Trevor Archer, Ulf Lidman and Marie Alricsson

Background:

Health organizations suggest that adults ought to engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity daily physical activity. This study investigated the effects of a 30-minute single daily bout of brisk walking upon risk factors for coronary heart disease with blood lipid profile in particular.

Methods:

Thirty-three (25–45 y) adults, were randomly assigned into an exercise group (EG; n = 16, 9w) and a control group (CG; n = 17, 6w). The EG walked briskly 30 minutes daily during the 3-week test period. Compliance/adherence was maximal throughout the 3-week intervention due to stringent daily monitoring.

Results:

The EG showed a significant decrease in concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) during the intervention period. A significant inverse correlation between Δ energy expenditure/day and Δ LDL-C (r = –0.39, P < .05) and an improvement in weight and BMI in the EG was found. Average steps during 30 minutes brisk walking bout was 3669 steps/bout generating a mean energy expenditure of 191 kcal/ bout.

Conclusions:

The most unique findings were that daily single bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity for 30 minutes, during 3 weeks, induced favorable effects upon body weight, BMI, and blood concentration of LDL-C and TC in healthy adults.

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Anders Raustorp, Peter Pagels, Cecilia Boldemann, Nilda Cosco, Margareta Söderström and Fredrika Mårtensson

Background:

It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity (PA) to influence policy and create environments that promote PA among preschool children. We compared preschoolers’ PA in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences boys’ and girls’ indoor and outdoor PA regarding different intensity levels and sedentary behavior.

Methods:

Accelerometer determined PA in 50 children with mean age 52 months, (range 40–67) was recorded during preschool time for 5 consecutive weekdays at 4 sites. The children wore an Actigraph GTIM Monitor.

Results:

Raleigh preschool children, opposite to Malmö preschoolers spent significantly more time indoors than outdoors (P < .001). Significantly more moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was observed outdoors (P < .001) in both settings. Malmö children accumulated significantly more counts/min indoors (P < .001). The percent of MVPA during outdoor time did not differ between children at Raleigh and Malmö.

Conclusion:

Physical activity counts/minutes was significantly higher outdoors vs. indoors in both Malmö and Raleigh. Malmö preschoolers spent 47% of attendance time outdoors compared with 18% for Raleigh preschoolers which could have influenced the difference in preschool activity between the 2 countries. Time spent in MVPA at preschool was very limited and predominantly adopted outdoors.