Self-rated health has been related to functional status, disability, and mortality in a variety of populations. This study examined whether self-rated health was related to physical activity levels independent of functional status in a population of older women. For this study, 9,704 women aged 65-99 rated their health on a scale ranging from excellent to very poor. Physical activity and functional status questionnaires and physical function tests were administered to evaluate levels of physical activity, strength, and function. Comparisons between women in three groups of self-rated health (good and excellent; fair; poor and very poor) indicated that higher self-rated health was strongly related to physical activity independent of physical strength, functional status, and co-morbidity. These findings suggest that physical activity is an important determinant of self-rated health in older women regardless of functional status.
Edward W. Gregg, Andrea M. Kriska, Kathleen M. Fox, and Jane A. Cauley
Jennifer L Kuk, Shahnaz Davachi, Andrea M. Kriska, Michael C. Riddell, and Edward W. Gregg
This article briefly summarizes the “Pre-Diabetes Detection and Intervention Symposium” that described ongoing and past pre-diabetes interventions, and outlined some considerations when deciding to target specific populations with pre-diabetes. The success of type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention clinical trials provides clear evidence that healthy lifestyle change can prevent the development of T2D in a cost effective manner in high risk individuals. However, who to target and what cut-points should be used to identify individuals who would qualify for these T2D prevention programs are not simple questions. More stringent cut-offs are more efficient in preventing T2D, but less equitable. Interventions will likely need to be adapted and made more economical for local communities and health care centers if they are to be adopted universally. Further, they may need to be adapted to meet the specific needs of certain high-risk populations such as ethnic minorities. The Chronic Disease Management & Prevention Program for Diverse Populations in Alberta and the Pre-diabetes Detection and Physical Activity Intervention Delivery project in Toronto represent 2 examples of specialized interventions that are targeted at certain high risk populations. To reverse the current T2D trends will require continued efforts to develop and refine T2D prevention interventions.
Bonny Rockette-Wagner, Rachel G. Miller, Yvonne L. Eaglehouse, Vincent C. Arena, M. Kaye Kramer, and Andrea M. Kriska
Background: The importance of leisure sedentary behavior (LSB) change in diabetes prevention efforts is not well known. This study examines the relationships between changes in self-reported LSB and the primary intervention goals (weight and moderate-intensity to vigorous-intensity physical activity [MVPA]) during a community-based translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program (the Group Lifestyle Balance Program). Methods: A total of 322 adults at risk for type 2 diabetes were recruited from 3 community centers, a worksite, and military site. Community and worksite participants were randomized to immediate or delayed-delivery (control) intervention. All military site participants (n = 99) received immediate intervention. Logistic and linear generalized estimating equations were used to determine associations between LSB changes and weight-related outcomes and MVPA. Results: Results were obtained for 259 (80.4%) participants. The LSB decreased after 6 and 12 months (mean [95% confidence interval]: −25.7 [−38.6 to −12.8] and −16.1 [−28.2 to −3.9] min/d; both P < .05). Each 20-minute reduction in LSB was associated with a 5% increase in odds of meeting the weight-loss goal (6 mo: odds ratio = 1.05 [1.002 to 1.102]; P = .042; adjusted model including MVPA), but LSB was not related to changes in reported MVPA minutes or MVPA goal achievement. Conclusion: Within the context of existing lifestyle intervention programs, reducing sedentary behavior has the potential to contribute to weight loss separately from reported MVPA improvement.
Rosenda Murillo, Maya J. Lambiase, Bonny J. Rockette-Wagner, Andrea M. Kriska, Jeffrey P. Haibach, and Rebecca C. Thurston
This study examined associations between physical activity (recreational, nonrecreational) and sleep duration among a nationally representative diverse sample of U.S. adults.
We used cross-sectional data from 9,205 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2012 participants aged 20 to 65 years who identified as White, Black, or Hispanic. Activity (ie, recreation, occupation, and transportation activity) was categorized into quartiles. Sleep duration was categorized as short (≤6 hours/night) or normal (>6 to ≤9 hours/night). Logistic regression was used to estimate associations of activity with sleep duration.
Recommended levels of recreation activity and moderate levels of transportation activity were associated with normal sleep duration [Odds Ratio (OR): = 1.33, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.65; OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.62, respectively]. High occupation physical activity was associated with shorter sleep duration (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.49, 0.71). Differences were observed by race/ethnicity in associations of recreation and occupation activity with sleep duration.
White individuals who engaged in some recreation activity, relative to being inactive, had more favorable sleep duration; whereas, high levels of occupation activity were associated with worse sleep duration among White and Black individuals. Physical activity was not associated with sleep duration among Hispanics.