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Sofia Wolker Manta, Kelly Samara da Silva, Giovani Firpo Del Duca, Luís Eduardo A. Malheiros, Margarethe Thaisi Garro Knebel, Andressa Ferreira da Silva, and Thiago Sousa Matias

Background: Income is an important determinant of physical activity (PA) when analyzed in its different domains. Sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, age, education, and marital status reveal distinct population profiles when PA domains are analyzed in isolation. This study aimed to describe clusters of PA in domains within income inequalities and to investigate the associated sociodemographic characteristics of Brazilian adults. Methods: A secondary analysis of the National Health Survey was performed (N = 50,176). PA, sociodemographic characteristics, and family income were investigated. Low- (n = 9504) and high-income adults (n = 6330) were analyzed. Two-step cluster and Rao–Scott chi-square tests were employed. Results: High-income adults accumulated 1.06 times more PA in leisure time compared with low-income adults. Of the 3 clusters observed, the inactive cluster was more prevalent (low-income group: 65.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 64.1–67.5; high-income group: 84.5%; 95% CI, 82.9–86.0). Work/leisure activities (21.2%; 95% CI, 19.8–22.8) and commuting/household activities (12.9%; 95% CI, 11.8–14.1) characterized low-income adults. Work/household activities (10.9%; 95% CI, 9.6–12.3) and commuting/leisure activities (4.6%, 95% CI, 3.9–5.4) characterized high-income adults. Sex (P < .001), age (P < .001), and marital status (P = .0023) were associated with low-income clusters. Conclusion: PA clustering differs within income inequalities. PA in leisure differentiates the opportunities in low- and high-income groups, but it is representative of a very small portion of the wealth.

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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto, and Andressa da Silva

The aim of this review was to identify the main variables for load monitoring in training and competition situations in wheelchair sports. Studies were identified from a systematic search of three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and SportDiscuss), with search phrases constructed from MeSH terms, alone or in combination, limited to English-language literature, and published up to January 2016. Our main findings were that variables related to external load (distance, speed, and duration) are used to monitor load in competition. In training situations, researchers have used variables related to internal load (heart rate and VO2); in both training and competition situations, researchers used internal load measurements (training impulse and ratings of perceived exertion). We conclude that the main variables for load monitoring in competitive situations were distance, speed, and duration, whereas the variables for training situations were heart rate, VO2, training impulse, and ratings of perceived exertion.

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Diego de Alcantara Borba, Eduardo da Silva Alves, João Paulo Pereira Rosa, Lucas Alves Facundo, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Aldo Coelho Silva, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Andressa Silva, and Marco Túlio de Mello

Background: Physical exercise plays an important role in metabolic health, especially in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of a single endurance and resistance exercise session on IGF-1 serum. Methods: The systematic review was performed in SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. All analyses are based on random-effect models. The study identified 249 records of which 21 were included. Results: There was an effect of endurance exercise on total IGF-1 (P = .01), but not for free IGF-1 (P = .36). Resistance exercise similarly only affected total IGF-1 (P = .003) and not free IGF-1 (P = .37). The effect size indicated that total IGF-1 is more affected (ES = 0.81) by endurance than by resistance exercise (ES = 0.46). The present study showed that IGF-1 serum concentrations are altered by exercise type, but in conditions which are not well-defined. Conclusions: The systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that there is no determinant in serum IGF-1 changes for the exercise load characteristic. Therefore, physical exercise may be an alternative treatment to control changes in IGF-1 metabolism and blood concentration.

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Marcelo Danillo Matos dos Santos, Felipe J. Aidar, Raphael Fabrício de Souza, Jymmys Lopes dos Santos, Andressa da Silva de Mello, Henrique P. Neiva, Daniel A. Marinho, and Mário C. Marques

Purpose: To verify the effects of using different grip widths in bench press performance in Paralympic powerlifting athletes. Methods: Twelve experienced Paralympic powerlifting male athletes (25.40 [3.30] y, 70.30 [12.15] kg) participated in the study. Maximal dynamic strength and maximal isometric strength (MIS) were determined. Then, mean propulsive velocity (MPV) using 25%, 50%, and 100% of maximal dynamic strength load and time to achieve 30%, 50%, and 100% of MIS were assessed with 4 different grip widths, specifically the biacromial distance (BAD: 42.83 [12.84] cm), 1.3 BAD (55.68 [16.70] cm), 1.5 BAD (63.20 [18.96] cm), and 81 cm. Electromyographic analysis was performed during MIS assessment in the pectoralis major sternal portion, anterior deltoid, triceps brachii long head, and pectoralis major clavicular portion. Results: Large differences were found between MPV performed with different grip widths using 25% of maximal dynamic strength load (P = .02, ηp2=.26). The 1.5 BAD grip tended to show greater force generation and MPV. Moreover, the time needed to achieve 30%, 50%, and 100% of MIS differed between grip widths (P = .03, ηp2=.24), with the lowest values obtained in the 1.5 BAD. Despite the nonstatistical differences that were found, grip widths caused moderate effects on muscle myoelectric activation, showing greater values for pectoralis major clavicular portion and pectoralis major sternal portion, for the 1.3 BAD and 1.5 BAD, respectively. The 1.5 BAD the grip width tended to show greater MPV values and faster contractile responses. Conclusions: These results highlighted the importance of choosing the specific grip width for improvement of performance in Paralympic powerlifting athletes, by increasing velocity of movement and force production in a shorter time, with greater activation of primary muscles.

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Radamés M.V. Medeiros, Eduardo S. Alves, Valdir A. Lemos, Paulo A. Schwingel, Andressa da Silva, Roberto Vital, Alexandre S. Vieira, Murilo M. Barreto, Edilson A. Rocha, Sergio Tufik, and Marco T. de Mello


Body-composition assessments of high-performance athletes are very important for identifying physical performance potential. Although the relationship between the kinanthropometric characteristics and performance abilities of Olympic swimmers is extremely important, this subject is not completely understood for Paralympic swimmers.


To investigate the relationship between body composition and sport performance in Brazilian Paralympic swimmers 6 mo after training.


Experimental pre/posttest design.


Research laboratory and field evaluations of swimming were conducted to verify the 50-m freestyle time of each athlete.


17 Brazilian Paralympic swim team athletes (12 men, 5 women).

Main Outcome Measures:

Body-composition assessments were performed using a BOD POD, and swimming performance was assessed using the 50-m freestyle, which was performed twice: before and after 6 mo of training.


Increased lean mass and significantly reduced relative fat mass and swimming time (P < .05) were observed 6 mo after training. Furthermore, a positive correlation between body-fat percentage and performance (r = .66, P < .05) was observed, but there was no significant correlation between body density and performance (r = –.14, P > .05).


After a 6-mo training period, Paralympic swimmers presented reduced fat mass and increased lean body mass associated with performance, as measured by 50-m freestyle time. These data suggest that reduced fat-mass percentage was significantly correlated with improved swimming performance in Paralympic athletes.