Sport psychology has become an increasingly popular area of interest for psychologists and psychology students. In addition, it has become an integral part of many collegiate and professional organizations that rely on psychological services for both performance enhancement purposes as well as mental health services. A model for delivering sport psychology services through a doctoral training clinic from a practitioner-scientist perspective will be discussed, as well as the challenges that are faced from an organizational and professional perspective.
Andrew T. Wolanin
Andrew T. Wolanin and Lori A. Schwanhausser
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of subclinical psychological difficulties, as assessed by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP; Gardner & Moore, 2004b, 2006), on the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC; Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007) performance enhancement intervention. Thirteen collegiate field hockey and volleyball athletes participated in a 7-week MAC protocol, and their results were compared to those of a control group of 7 same-sport athletes. Nonparametric analysis of the data offers additional support for MAC as a strategy for enhancing the athletic performance of collegiate athletes and suggests the importance of the accurate assessment of subclinical psychological difficulties to ensure the successful application of sport psychology interventions. In essence, these results suggest that the presence or absence of subclinical psychological difficulties may serve as a moderating factor in performance enhancement efforts.
Kendahl M. Shortway, Andrew Wolanin, Jennifer Block-Lerner and Donald Marks
Few studies have examined the development or implementation of protocols based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to enhance sport injury rehabilitation, despite findings that suggest ACT may be an effective intervention for this purpose. The current article details the rationale for and design of Return to ACTion, an ACT-based protocol intended to target psychological flexibility and mindfulness to increase rehabilitation adherence and overall well-being for injured athletes. The initial feasibility of delivering the intervention at a Division III public university in the northeastern United States was also explored. Return to ACTion was offered in the athletic training facility to injured student-athletes during a 12-week period with recruitment assistance from the athletic trainers. Qualitative data pertaining to feasibility was collected with a log of observations maintained by the principal investigator and with verbal and electronic interactions with the athletic trainers. Although there were no participants in the intervention, there were important findings relevant to further application and research.
Jessica J. DeGaetano, Andrew T. Wolanin, Donald R. Marks and Shiloh M. Eastin
The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of psychosocial factors and psychological flexibility on rehabilitation protocol adherence in a sample of injured collegiate athletes. Self-report measures were given to injured athletes before the start of a physical rehabilitation protocol. Upon completion of rehabilitation, each athlete was assessed by the chief athletic trainer using a measure of rehabilitation adherence. Correlational analyses and bootstrapped logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether broad psychosocial factors and level of psychological flexibility predicted engagement and adherence to a rehabilitation protocol. Psychological flexibility, as measured on the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (2nd ed.; Bond et al., 2011), contributed significantly to the overall logistic regression model. Study findings suggested that assessment of psychological flexibility could give medical providers a way to evaluate both quickly and quantitatively potentially problematic behavioral responding among injured athletes, allowing for more effective adherence monitoring.