Sports remain a man’s world as the coverage of females in sport continues to be marginalized. In During the 1990s Sports Illustrated, which appeals primarily to male readers interested in spectator sports publicized by the media, provided limited coverage of females. Based on an examination of the number of feature articles, article length in column inches, number of pictures, and article content, only in tennis, figure skating, and gymnastics were more females featured than males. In reporting on females in sports, Sports Illustrated emphasized individual sports and the femininity of female athletes, while including some usage of sexist language.
Questioning persists at the heart of learning. The challenge facing teachers is how to move beyond simply asking questions to check for student recall to asking open-ended, thought-provoking, and intellectually engaging questions. Only essential questions with these characteristics will empower students to develop higher cognitive-thinking skills. Eliciting purposeful questions and responses from students will help them construct new knowledge and expand the meaning of what they are learning. The importance and benefits of using questions are described. The author shares 6 sequential, yet interrelated, stages with recommended action steps as strategies for explicating effective questioning strategies. To greatly expand the effectiveness of questioning strategies, teachers must build students’ capacity to explain, interpret, apply, change their perspectives, and transfer their learning in new situations.
Angela Lumpkin and Marybell Avery
This survey assessed the perceptions of students in the spring semester, 1984, about characteristics of and courses in the University of North Carolina’s Physical Education Activities Program and obtained their suggestions for changes in the program. Frequency data and percentages were reported for each response on the 64-item questionnaire along with analysis of the data by year in college and gender. The majority of students were generally to extremely satisfied with the overall program, evaluated the quality of instruction as above average or excellent, preferred 1-hour classes twice a week for one semester in the same activity, liked having a letter or pass/fail grading option, and supported the university’s two-course and swim-test requirements. Individual sports and fitness courses were the preferred offerings. Responses were consistent across years in college and gender.
Marybell Avery and Angela Lumpkin
This study surveyed 2559 students enrolled in the physical education program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to determine which physical education objectives students considered to be most and least important and to assess if there were any differences based on gender and class in the responses. Descriptive statistics revealed that having fun, getting regular exercise, and keeping in good health and physical condition were most important. Providing vocational preparation, learning about human kinetics and exercise science, developing emotional stability, and developing self-realization were rated least important. Results of a principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed that the 24 participation motives loaded on four factors: (a) self-worth, (b) physiological parameters, (c) social affiliation, and (d) lifetime use. ANOVAs on each factor revealed significant effects for class and gender on all the factors except the lifetime use factor. These findings extend those of Soudan and Everett (1981) and provide important information relative to class and gender as mediators of participation motives of students involved in a physical education activity program.
Angela Lumpkin and Rebecca M. Achen
Despite what many claim, just because there is teaching does not mean there is learning. Clear and convincing evidence supports changing the instructional paradigm to a learner-centered classroom. Flipping a class shifts the delivery, often through technologically presented lectures, to free class time for student participation in a plethora of learning activities, such as think-pair-share and discussions, leading to student perceptions of greater learning and more enjoyment. In an action research approach with one class, 72% of juniors and seniors in an undergraduate sport finance and economics class reported out-of-class lectures often positively impacted their learning, and the remaining 28% responded these lectures did sometimes. End-of-course evaluations and surveys were overwhelmingly positive about class engagement, interaction, and enjoyment.
Angela Lumpkin and Linda D. Williams
All Sports Illustrated feature articles between 1954-1987 were examined with reference to sport, gender, race, role of the person featured, length of article, author, number of pictures, individuals pictured, and descriptive characteristics. The sporting achievements and lives of males were acclaimed in 90.8% of these 3,723 articles. Males authored 91.8% of the articles. Baseball (21.6%), football (16.2%), and basketball (13.1%) appeared most frequently, followed by boxing (7.5%), track and field (6.5%), and golf (4.7%). Blacks were featured in only 22.4% of the feature articles. Athletes (83.9%) and their achievements, rather than coaches, owners, or administrators, were the focus of these articles. As expected, pictures of the featured individuals predominated (mean of 3.01) over those of others (mean of .677). Articles about males and whites were longer on average than those about females and blacks (66 to 55 and 67 to 58 column inches, respectively), as were those for boxing (77), football (69), baseball (60), and men’s basketball (58). Written descriptors characterized females in blatantly sexist terms.
Angela Lumpkin, Judy Favor and Lacole McPherson
While the number of high school girls’ teams has dramatically increased since Title IX, the number of female head coaches has not. In the 10 most popular high school sports in 2011-2012, only three (volleyball, swimming and diving, and competitive spirit squads) had more than 44% female head coaches. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether females or males are coaching high school girls’ sport teams and whether female coaches are attaining head coaching positions in the most popular high school girls’ sports. Additionally, the study sought to understand better why males and females choose to become head coaches of high school girls’ sport teams and what factors might cause head high school girls’ coaches to resign from coaching. In the 21–30 age group, there were more female than male head coaches of girls’ teams, but after age 40, male head coaches vastly outnumbered female head coaches. Of the coaches with 12 or more years of experience, only 33% were females. Time away from family, player issues, inadequate compensation, and time away from other activities were the top reasons high school coaches might resign.