The study was conducted to investigate the quantity and the main food sources of carbohydrate (CHO) intake of junior elite triathletes during a short-term moderate (MOD; 12 km swimming, 100 km cycling, 30 km running per wk) and intensive training period (INT; 23 km swimming, 200 km cycling, 45 km running per wk). Self-reported dietary-intake data accompanied by training protocols of 7 male triathletes (18.1 ± 2.4 yr, 20.9 ± 1.4 kg/m2) were collected on 7 consecutive days during both training periods in the same competitive season. Total energy and CHO intake were calculated based on the German Food Database. A paired t test was applied to test for differences between the training phases (α = .05). CHO intake was slightly higher in INT than in MOD (9.0 ± 1.6 g · kg−1 · d−1 vs. 7.8 ± 1.6 g · kg−1 · d−1; p = .041). Additional CHO in INT was mainly ingested during breakfast (115 ± 37 g in MOD vs. 175 ± 23 g in INT; p = .002) and provided by beverages (280.5 ± 97.3 g/d vs. 174.0 ± 58.3 g/d CHO; p = .112). Altogether, main meals provided approximately two thirds of the total CHO intake. Pre- and postexercise snacks additionally supplied remarkable amounts of CHO (198.3 ± 84.3 g/d in INT vs. 185.9 ± 112 g/d CHO in MOD; p = .231). In conclusion, male German junior triathletes consume CHO in amounts currently recommended for endurance athletes during moderate to intensive training periods. Main meals provide the majority of CHO and should therefore not be skipped. CHO-containing beverages, as well as pre- and postexercise snacks, may provide a substantial amount of CHO intake in training periods with high CHO requirements.
Anja Carlsohn, Susanne Nippe, Juliane Heydenreich and Frank Mayer
Anja Carlsohn, Friederike Scharhag-Rosenberger, Michael Cassel, Josefine Weber, Annette de Guzman Guzman and Frank Mayer
Adequate energy intake in adolescent athletes is considered important. Total energy expenditure (TEE) can be calculated from resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity level (PAL). However, validated PAL recommendations are available for adult athletes only. Purpose was to comprise physical activity data in adolescent athletes and to establish PAL recommendations for this population. In 64 competitive athletes (15.3 ± 1.5yr, 20.5 ± 2.0kg/m2) and 14 controls (15.1 ± 1.1yr, 21 ± 2.1kg/m2) TEE was calculated using 7-day activity protocols validated against doubly-labeled water. REE was estimated by Schofield-HW equation, and PAL was calculated as TEE:REE. Observed PAL in adolescent athletes (1.90 ± 0.35) did not differ compared with controls (1.84 ± 0.32, p = .582) and was lower than recommended for adult athletes by the WHO. In conclusion, applicability of PAL values recommended for adult athletes to estimate energy requirements in adolescent athletes must be questioned. Instead, a PAL range of 1.75–2.05 is suggested.