Purpose: Guided by Duda’s hierarchical conceptualization of the motivational climate that draws from self-determination and achievement goal theories, this study provides initial evidence of the psychometric properties of the Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire in physical education (EDMCQ-PE). Method: Questionnaire based with two samples of Welsh secondary school pupils. Results: Exploratory structural equation modeling provided a better fit of the data to the hypothesized model than confirmatory factor analysis. Moreover, a two-factor composite (i.e., empowering and disempowering) lower-order model provided an acceptable fit and clear parameter estimates. This two-factor model also demonstrated scalar gender measurement invariance. Discussion: The evidence from this study suggests the EDMCQ-PE is a promising scale for the assessment of secondary school pupils’ perceptions of the empowering and disempowering features of the motivational climate created by their physical education teachers. Conclusion: Moving forward, the statistical approach employed in this paper can inform future studies that develop questionnaire methodology in physical education and from an applied perspective; the EDMCQ-PE can be used by researchers and teachers to assess the motivational climate in PE and help inform the pedagogy underpinning teachers’ classes.
Daniel Milton, Paul R. Appleton, Anna Bryant and Joan L. Duda
Lowri C. Edwards, Anna S. Bryant, Kevin Morgan, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Anwen M. Jones and Richard J. Keegan
Introduction: Despite increases in research and implementation, physical literacy continues to be largely misinterpreted by practitioners. The purpose of this study was to devise, implement, and evaluate a professional development program that works in a primary school environment to enhance their knowledge and operationalization of physical literacy. Methods: Following a 3-month needs assessment phase, data were collected from structured observations, reflections, and semistructured interviews with the teachers, before, during, and after an introductory workshop and 6-month physical literacy intervention. Thematic analysis was used to evaluate perceptions of program effectiveness. Results: The needs assessment phase identified notable differences between teachers’ classroom and physical education practice. Results of the physical literacy workshop and intervention detailed an increase in teachers’ knowledge of, and operationalization of, physical literacy. Discussion/Conclusions: Applying established principles of effective professional development in a contextually sensitive manner was viewed as effective in enhancing primary school teachers’ knowledge and practice regarding physical literacy.
Lowri C. Edwards, Richard Tyler, Dylan Blain, Anna Bryant, Neil Canham, Lauren Carter-Davies, Cain Clark, Tim Evans, Ceri Greenall, Julie Hobday, Anwen Jones, Marianne Mannello, Emily Marchant, Maggie Miller, Graham Moore, Kelly Morgan, Sarah Nicholls, Chris Roberts, Michael Sheldrick, Karen Thompson, Nalda Wainwright, Malcolm Ward, Simon Williams and Gareth Stratton
Richard J. Keegan, Lisa M. Barnett, Dean A. Dudley, Richard D. Telford, David R. Lubans, Anna S. Bryant, William M. Roberts, Philip J. Morgan, Natasha K. Schranz, Juanita R. Weissensteiner, Stewart A. Vella, Jo Salmon, Jenny Ziviani, Anthony D. Okely, Nalda Wainwright and John R. Evans
Purpose: The development of a physical literacy definition and standards framework suitable for implementation in Australia. Method: Modified Delphi methodology. Results: Consensus was established on four defining statements: Core—Physical literacy is lifelong holistic learning acquired and applied in movement and physical activity contexts; Composition—Physical literacy reflects ongoing changes integrating physical, psychological, cognitive, and social capabilities; Importance—Physical literacy is vital in helping us lead healthy and fulfilling lives through movement and physical activity; and Aspiration—A physically literate person is able to draw on his/her integrated physical, psychological, cognitive, and social capacities to support health promoting and fulfilling movement and physical activity, relative to the situation and context, throughout the lifespan. The standards framework addressed four learning domains (physical, psychological, cognitive, and social), spanning five learning configurations/levels. Conclusion: The development of a bespoke program for a new context has important implications for both existing and future programs.
Lisa M. Barnett, Dean A. Dudley, Richard D. Telford, David R. Lubans, Anna S. Bryant, William M. Roberts, Philip J. Morgan, Natasha K. Schranz, Juanita R. Weissensteiner, Stewart A. Vella, Jo Salmon, Jenny Ziviani, Anthony D. Okely, Nalda Wainwright, John R. Evans and Richard J. Keegan
Assessment of physical literacy poses a dilemma of what instrument to use. There is currently no guide regarding the suitability of common assessment approaches. The purpose of this brief communication is to provide a user’s guide for selecting physical literacy assessment instruments appropriate for use in school physical education and sport settings. Although recommendations regarding specific instruments are not provided, the guide offers information about key attributes and considerations for the use. A decision flow chart has been developed to assist teachers and affiliated school practitioners to select appropriate methods of assessing physical literacy. School physical education and sport scenarios are presented to illustrate this process. It is important that practitioners are empowered to select the most appropriate instrument/s to suit their needs.