Research illustrates the positive roles of perceived competence, autonomy, and mastery climate and the negative role of performance climate in student motivation in physical education. Less research has examined perceptions of relationships within this setting (i.e., perceived teacher support and relatedness) and their role in student motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the mediating roles of perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness in the relationship between social contextual factors and motivation in physical education students (N = 508). Results from structural equation modeling showed that perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness partially mediated the relationship between perceived teacher support and self-determined motivation and that mastery climate related directly to self-determined motivation. The results highlight the importance of perceived teacher support, mastery climate, and relatedness to motivation in physical education.
Sarah Ullrich-French and Anne Cox
According to self-determination theory, motivation is multidimensional, with motivation regulations lying along a continuum of self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2007). Accounting for the different types of motivation in physical activity research presents a challenge. This study used cluster analysis to identify motivation regulation profiles and examined their utility by testing profile differences in relative levels of self-determination (i.e., self-determination index), and theoretical antecedents (i.e., competence, autonomy, relatedness) and consequences (i.e., enjoyment, worry, effort, value, physical activity) of physical education motivation. Students (N = 386) in 6th- through 8th-grade physical education classes completed questionnaires of the variables listed above. Five profiles emerged, including average (n = 81), motivated (n = 82), self-determined (n = 91), low motivation (n = 73), and external (n = 59). Group difference analyses showed that students with greater levels of self-determined forms of motivation, regardless of non-self-determined motivation levels, reported the most adaptive physical education experiences.
Athina Liacos, Angela T. Burge, Narelle S. Cox and Anne E. Holland
Older people with chronic lung diseases and with low physical activity participation rates are at higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a purpose-designed Internet-based program (ActivOnline) to monitor and encourage exercise and physical activity. Twelve participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchiectasis were recruited (54–84 years). Primary outcome measures were feasibility measured by frequency of program access, and acceptability measured by semistructured interview, system usability scores, and participant perception of benefit. The results suggest regular participation in physical activity and exercise during the 8-week study period and high usability scores (mean = 90% ± 9%). Major themes were the importance of regular exercise and how sustained lifestyle changes were essential to be physically active, regular contact with clinicians assisted with motivation, and aspects of ActivOnline facilitated individual behavior change and confidence to continue exercising. Most participants (82%) reported a benefit from using ActivOnline, and 55% wished to remain on the program indefinitely.