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Emily R. Hunt, Shelby E. Baez, Anne D. Olson, Timothy A. Butterfield and Esther Dupont-Versteegden

Massage is a common therapeutic modality utilized by clinicians in a variety of settings to help treat injuries, reduce pain, and return function to patients. Massage benefits the patients both psychologically and physiologically, as patients report less pain and anxiety along with better mood and even decreased blood pressure following massage. Additionally, on the cellular level, massage has the ability to modulate the damaging inflammatory process and, in some cases, influence protein synthesis. Although massage has not been linked to a rehabilitation theory to date, this paper will propose how massage may influence fear-avoidance beliefs, or the patient’s inability to cope with pain that then leads to a pain tension cycle. Pain will often result in use avoidance, which creates muscle tension that further exacerbates the pain. Massage can affect the Fear-Avoidance Model because the beneficial effects of massage can break the cycle by either relieving the patient’s pain or eliminating the muscle tension. A modified Fear-Avoidance Model is presented that conceptualizes how pain and fear-avoidance lead to tension and muscle dysfunction. Massage has been incorporated into the model to demonstrate its potential for breaking the pain tension cycle. This model has the potential to be applied in clinical settings and provides an alternate treatment to patients with chronic pain who present with increased levels of fear-avoidance beliefs.