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Dani M. Moffit, Jamie L. Mansell and Anne C. Russ

Temple University Owls Athletic Training Society (OATS), committed to education and community involvement, formed a relationship with Lanning Square Elementary School (LSE). Located less than 10 miles from campus in Camden, NJ, a high incidence of poverty, violence, and one-parent families is the norm. Through a grant, OATS adopted the fifth-grade classes at LSE for 1 year, beginning with letter exchanges between OATS students and elementary students. OATS traveled to LSE for their holiday party, met their pen pals, and provided healthy snacks. In the spring, the LSE completed a health/wellness unit and visited Temple. Students shared several health activities including learning about bones/muscles in the anatomy laboratory, stretching properly, and exercising. They received lunch and Temple mementos. OATS raised money the following year to continue the project. This allowed OATS and administrators to participate positively in our community, promote diversity, and introduce healthy lifestyles to youngsters.

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Anne C. Russ, Dani M. Moffit and Jamie L. Mansell

Sexual harassment is a sensitive and pervasive topic in higher education. Programs and institutions have the responsibility to protect the students from sexual harassment under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (United States Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, 2011). While much attention has been focused toward on-campus interactions (i.e., professor/student, student/student), many students participate in off-campus fieldwork and internships associated with coursework, where the students are still protected under Title IX. The purpose of this discussion is to define sexual harassment, summarize research regarding sexual harassment in a fieldwork setting, consider how sexual harassment affects students, and identify resources to help programs identify and respond to sexual harassment.

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Jenna Ratka, Jamie Mansell and Anne Russ

Clinical Question: In rugby players, does using a mouthguard reduce the risk of concussion? Clinical Bottom Line: After examining the three studies included in this critical appraisal, results are inconclusive. This translates to limited evidence to support the use of a mouthguard to decrease concussion incidence in the sport of rugby

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Simon J. Sebire, Anne M. Haase, Alan A. Montgomery, Jade McNeill and Russ Jago

Background:

The current study investigated cross-sectional associations between maternal and paternal logistic and modeling physical activity support and the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and physical activity intentions of 11- to 12-year-old girls.

Methods:

210 girls reported perceptions of maternal and paternal logistic and modeling support and their self-efficacy, self-esteem and intention to be physically active. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models.

Results:

Maternal logistic support was positively associated with participants’ self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy, and intention to be active. Maternal modeling was positively associated with self-efficacy. Paternal modeling was positively associated with self-esteem and selfefficacy but there was no evidence that paternal logistic support was associated with the psychosocial variables.

Conclusions:

Activity-related parenting practices were associated with psychosocial correlates of physical activity among adolescent girls. Logistic support from mothers, rather than modeling support or paternal support may be a particularly important target when designing interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in physical activity among girls.

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Ryan Thomson, Danielle Carabello, Jamie Mansell and Anne Russ

Clinical Question: In retired National Football League (NFL) players, what is the prevalence of depression after sustaining concussions? Clinical Bottom Line: There is emerging evidence to support the clinical question that retired NFL players with a history of concussion may be diagnosed with depression.

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Melissa Jack, Ryan Tierney, Jamie Mansell and Anne Russ

Focused Clinical Question: In patients with myofascial trigger point pain, does dry needling result in greater decreases in pain compared to sham needling? Clinical Bottom Line: The evidence supporting dry needling as more effective than sham needling in reducing patients’ pain is mixed.

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Ian McGinnis, Justin Cobb, Ryan Tierney and Anne Russ

Clinical Question: What is the efficacy of vestibular rehabilitation for treating imbalance and self-reported dizziness in patients experiencing prolonged symptoms of concussion? Clinical Bottom Line: There is consistent, but low-level, evidence supporting that vestibular rehabilitation can have a positive effect on self-reported dizziness (dizziness severity, Dizziness Handicap Inventory [DHI], Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale [ABC]) and objective balance (Sensory Organization Test [SOT], Balance Error Scoring System [BESS]) in patients with prolonged symptoms following concussion. Vestibular rehabilitation is not for every concussed patient. Several, though few, patients did not improve or became worse with the implementation of vestibular rehabilitation. Many of the vestibular rehabilitation exercises utilized in these studies are easily accessible to athletic trainers and, with informed decision making and proper oversight, could be implemented in the athletic training room.

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Timothy A. Kulpa, Jamie Mansell, Anne Russ and Ryan Tierney

Context: Patients who do not fully recover from a concussion in 7–14 days may require an impairment-based rehabilitation program. Recent evidence indicates improved outcomes with active rehabilitation compared to passive physical and cognitive rest. Clinical Question: In patients with persistent symptoms (greater than 4 weeks) following concussion, how does aerobic exercise affect postconcussion symptoms? Clinical Bottom Line: There is moderate and sufficient SORT Level B evidence to support the inclusion of subsymptom threshold (SST) exercise in the multimodal treatment plan for patients suffering from persistent symptoms after concussion. All five included studies reported moderate to very large effects ranging from d = 0.72 to d = 10.64 in reducing symptoms after the implementation of SST aerobic exercise. Additionally, two studies also identified moderate and very large effects (d = 0.77, d = 2.56) favoring aerobic exercise over stretching interventions. These results indicate that this treatment has potential clinical utility and is a viable option to reduce symptoms in patients with postconcussion syndrome and persistent symptoms following concussion.

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Mindi Fisher, Ryan Tierney, Anne Russ and Jamie Mansell

Clinical Question: In concussed patients, will having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning difficulties (LD) versus not having ADHD or LD cause higher symptom severity scores or invalid baseline protocols? Clinical Bottom Line: Research supports the concept that there is a difference at baseline for individuals with ADHD and/or LD compared with those who do not.