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Anne M. Merrem and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of occupational socialization on the perspectives and practices of two female German sport pedagogy faculty members, Heidi and Lisa, regarding physical education (PE) and PE teacher education (PETE). Method: The main data sources were six formal interviews. Supplementary data were generated through informal interviewing, field notes made while observing and interacting with the two faculty members, document analysis, and electronic journaling. Data were coded and categorized by employing analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: Findings illustrated the cyclical nature of the two faculty members’ occupational socialization. Heidi and Lisa gained traditional sport-focused teaching orientations from their acculturation that were mainly reinforced during subsequent phases of socialization. Conclusion: Key reasons for the perpetuation of the traditional sport-focused teaching orientation was the generic nature of PETE and doctoral programs and the fact that there was little competition between curricular PE and extracurricular sport in the schooling Heidi and Lisa experienced.

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Leo Ng, Amity Campbell, Angus Burnett, Anne Smith and Peter O’Sullivan

There is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in adolescent male rowers. In this study, regional lumbar spinal kinematics and self-reported LBP intensity were compared between 10 adolescent rowers with moderate levels of LBP relating to rowing with 10 reporting no history of LBP during a 15-minute ergometer trial using an electromagnetic tracking system. Adolescent male rowers with LBP reported increasing pain intensity during ergometer rowing. No significant differences were detected in mean upper or lower lumbar angles between rowers with and without LBP. However, compared with rowers without pain, rowers with pain: (1) had relatively less excursion of the upper lumbar spine into extension over the drive phase, (2) had relatively less excursion of the lower lumbar spine into extension over time, (3) had greater variability in upper and lower lumbar angles over the 15-minute ergometer trial, (4) positioned their upper lumbar spine closer to end range flexion for a greater proportion of the drive phase, and (5) showed increased time in sustained flexion loading in the upper lumbar spine. Differences in regional lumbar kinematics exist between adolescent male rowers with and without LBP, which may have injury implication and intervention strategies.

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Melanie Wade, Amity Campbell, Anne Smith, Joanne Norcott and Peter O’Sullivan

The link between static and dynamic landing lumbar postures, when gymnasts are exposed to large ground reaction forces, has not been established. This investigation aimed to (a) determine if a relationship exists between sagittal static and dynamic landing lumbar spine angles at peak ground reaction force (GRF) and (b) quantify how close to end-range postures the gymnasts were at landing peak GRF. Twenty-one female gymnasts’ upper and lower lumbar spine angles were recorded: statically in sitting and standing, during landing of three gymnastic skills, and during active end-range lumbar flexion. Pearson’s correlations were used to investigate relationships between the angles in different postures. Significant correlations (r = .77–.89, p < .01) were found between all the static/dynamic postures in the lower lumbar spine angle, while fewer and less significant upper lumbar spine correlations were reported. Thirty percent of gymnasts landed a backsault with their lower lumbar spine flexed beyond their active end-range while experiencing GRF 6.8–13.3 times their body weight. These results inform low back pain prevention and management strategies in this population and highlight areas for future research.

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Jay R. Ebert, Anne Smith, Peter K. Edwards and Timothy R. Ackland

Context:

Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) is an established technique for the repair of knee chondral defects. Despite the reported clinical improvement in knee pain and symptoms, little is known on the recovery of knee strength and its return to an appropriate level compared with the unaffected limb.

Objective:

To investigate the progression of isokinetic knee strength and limb symmetry after MACI.

Design:

Prospective cohort.

Setting:

Private functional rehabilitation facility.

Patients:

58 patients treated with MACI for full-thickness cartilage defects to the femoral condyles.

Intervention:

MACI and a standardized rehabilitation protocol.

Main Outcome Measures:

Preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 5 y postsurgery, patients underwent a 3-repetition-maximum straight-leg raise test, as well as assessment of isokinetic knee-flexor and -extensor torque and hamstring:quadriceps (H:Q) ratios. Correlation analysis investigated the association between strength and pain, demographics, defect, and surgery characteristics. Linear-regression analysis estimated differences in strength measures between the operated and nonoperated limbs, as well as Limb Symmetry Indexes (LSI) over time.

Results:

Peak knee-extension torque improved significantly over time for both limbs but was significantly lower on the operated limb preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 5 y. Mean LSIs of 77.0%, 83.0%, and 86.5% were observed at 1, 2, and 5 y, respectively, while 53.4–72.4% of patients demonstrated an LSI ≤ 90% across the postoperative timeline. Peak knee-flexion torque was significantly lower on the operated limb preoperatively and at 1 year. H:Q ratios were significantly higher on the operated limb at all time points.

Conclusions:

While peak knee-flexion and hip-flexor strength were within normal limits, the majority of patients in this study still demonstrated an LSI for peak knee-extensor strength ≤ 90%, even at 5 y. It is unknown how this prolonged knee-extensor deficit may affect long-term graft outcome and risk of reinjury after return to activity.

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Kimberly A. Smith, Michael Gallagher, Anne E. Hays, Fredric L. Goss and Robert Robertson

Background:

Pedometers are most accurate at measuring steps, less accurate at estimating distance, and even less accurate at estimating kilocalorie expenditure. The purpose of this investigation was to create a Physical Activity Index (PAI) using pedometer step counts and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) to enhance the ability to estimate kilocalorie expenditure during walking exercise.

Methods:

Thirty-two females performed 3 counterbalanced walking bouts. During each bout, oxygen consumption, RPE, and step counts were measured. The PAI was calculated as the product of RPE and step count for each of the bouts.

Results:

Concurrent validation of the PAI was established using VO2 as the criterion variable. A multiple regression analysis revealed a strong, positive relation between PAI score and VO2 (r = .91). Data were then used to develop a statistical model to estimate kcal expenditure using the PAI score as the predictor variable.

Conclusion:

The PAI was found to be an accurate method of estimating kcal expenditure and is a simple, unobtrusive and inexpensive tool which may be used in public health settings.

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Stephanie M. George, Catherine M. Alfano, Ashley Wilder Smith, Melinda L. Irwin, Anne McTiernan, Leslie Bernstein, Kathy B. Baumgartner and Rachel Ballard-Barbash

Background:

Many cancer survivors experience declines in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and increases in fatigue as a result of cancer and its treatment. Exercise is linked to improvements in these outcomes, but little is known about the role of sedentary behavior. In a large, ethnically-diverse cohort of breast cancer survivors, we examined the relationship between sedentary time, HRQOL, and fatigue, and examined if that relationship differed by recreational moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) level.

Methods:

Participants were 710 women diagnosed with stage 0-IIIA breast cancer in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Women completed questionnaires at approximately 30-months postdiagnosis (sedentary time; recreational MVPA) and 41-months postdiagnosis (HRQOL; fatigue). In multivariate models, we regressed these outcomes linearly on quartiles of daily sedentary time, and a variable jointly reflecting sedentary time quartiles and MVPA categories (0; >0 to <9; ≥9 MET-hrs/wk).

Results:

Sedentary time was not independently related to subscales or summary scores of HRQOL or fatigue. In addition, comparisons of women with high vs. low (Q4:Q1) sedentary time by MVPA level did not result in significant differences in HRQOL or fatigue.

Conclusion:

In this breast cancer survivor cohort, self-reported sedentary time was not associated with HRQOL or fatigue, 3.5 years postdiagnosis.