Jeroen Koekoek and Annelies Knoppers
Purpose: To explore how the use of gender categorizations inform children’s preferences of working with others in physical education. Method: Draw, write, and tell procedures were used to elicit the thoughts and feelings of 42 children, across four schools, about their peers and working together in groups. The children, aged between 11 and 13 years, were distributed across 14 focus groups to talk about conditions in group work that they thought facilitated and inhibited their learning. Results: Two meta-themes—(a) classmates and friendships and (b) work intention and trust—emerged from the interview data about their preferences for the ways groups were constituted. The results indicated that these children created or constructed categories of their peers based on gender but using gender-neutral words. Conclusion: Their constructions of working with others in PE contributed to an implicit curriculum consisting of different expectations for the same gender and for other gender groups.
Annelies Knoppers and Anton Anthonissen
Gender, class, and sexuality are intersecting categories of inequality and also social forces that shape meanings given to organizations, social institutions, identities, and images. The authors use Acker’s (2000) concept “regimes of inequality” to explore how gender, specifically masculinities, intersects with social class and sexuality in women’s soccer. The extent to which social relations are also situational and culturally specific can be revealed in part with the use of comparative studies. The story of women’s soccer in the Netherlands is one of struggle for resources, acceptance, visibility, and legitimization with little result, while in the United States that same struggle has resulted in visibility and the establishment of a professional women’s soccer league. In this article the authors explore several regimes of inequality that shape women’s soccer using cross-cultural comparisons.
Annelies Knoppers and Anton Anthonissen
This article focuses on the dominant meanings given by coaches and managers to “performance” in Dutch (amateur) sport clubs and how such meanings contribute to organizational processes related to (the intersection of) gender and race/ethnicity. We use the results of six studies conducted in (amateur) sport organizations in the Netherlands for this discussion/exploration. We argue that the relatively slow increase in the number of women and ethnic minorities in leadership positions can in part be explained by the dominant meanings given to “performance.” We also show how the salience of the intersection between gender and race/ethnicity is situation-specific.
Maureen R. Weiss and Annelies Knoppers
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to replicate and extend the earlier findings of Greendorfer (1977) by examining the role of significant others on the socialization of female volleyball players, and (b) to clarify the use of various statistical methodologies in sport socialization research. Players (N = 95) competing in the 1979 Big Ten volleyball championships responded to a sport socialization questionnaire designed to assess the degree of influence of socializing agents on active sport involvement. Descriptive statistics revealed that female volleyball players were surrounded by significant others who strongly supported and encouraged their participation throughout their life cycle. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, of the significant others who supported participation, parents, peers, and physical education teachers/coaches collectively had a significant influence on sport involvement only during the participant's childhood. Brothers were significant agents of sport socialization during the player's childhood and college years; no other agents reached significance for any of the life cycle stages. The discrepant results between the two analyses of this study, and previous socialization studies, were attributed to homogeneity of the sample and the statistical methods used. Recommendations are made about the use of statistical and methodological procedures in future socialization research.
Annelies Knoppers, Jayne Schuiteman, and Bob Love
The purpose of this study was to explore the dimensionality, situation specificity, and magnitude of game orientation in teenagers across the independent variables of gender, athletic status (athlete, nonathlete) and ethnicity (Anglo, Black, Hispanic). Subjects (N = 864) completed a Likert version of Webb’s Professionalization Scale (1969) in response to a description of a recreational and of a competitive situation. Responses to questions pertaining to the importance of victory and of skill comprised a professional orientation while questions focusing on fun and equity constituted a play orientation. The results indicated that game orientation was multidimensional and situation specific, and was mediated to some extent by ethnicity but not by gender and athletic status. The discussion includes a focus on methodology and instrumentation used in other studies pertaining to game orientation.
Jeroen Koekoek, Annelies Knoppers, and Harry Stegeman
Relatively little is known about the ways in which children understand and perceive how they learn tasks or skills in physical education classes. The purpose of this study was to use a constructivist framework to explore how children express their experiences, thoughts, and feelings about how they learn in physical education classes. A variety of methods (semistructured interviews, draw and write exercises, and focus groups) were used to examine how 29 children, aged 11–13, perceived assigned tasks. Results indicated that these children could express themselves in a limited way about their learning experiences and that each method yielded similar and different information. We discuss the implications of these findings for research methodology and quality instruction in physical education.
Annelies Knoppers, Marvin Zuidema, and Barbara Bedker Meyer
The Webb Scale (1969) has been used in much of the research focusing on the professionalization of attitudes via sport. The results of such studies seemed to indicate that the extent to which winning was valued varied by age, gender, and type of sport involvement. However, these findings may in part have been a function of the noncontextual nature of the Webb Scale. In addition, the use of ranking methodology may have forced game orientation into an artificial bipolar continuum bounded by play orientation on one end and professional orientation at the other end. In the current study, the results of the administration of the Webb Scale and the Game Orientation Scale (Knoppers, Schuiteman, & Love, 1986) to 312 youngsters were compared across gender and degree of athletic experience. The Game Orientation Scale uses descriptions of two different sport scenarios and 5-point Likert scales to assess game orientation. The results revealed that game orientation was multidimensional, that the Webb Scale’s validity was questionable, and that professionalization was more a function of measurement and of the type of setting than of a generalized inherent attitude.
Agnes Elling, Paul De Knop, and Annelies Knoppers
The diversity of sport participants in the Netherlands is beginning to reflect the diversity within the general population. Sport as a whole is becoming more accessible, and participation in sport of different social groups takes place within both mainstream and “separate” sports clubs and in differently organized sports groups. In our paper we critically analyze the broader social integrative functions ascribed to sport by policy makers. We attempt to show that the ongoing democratization of sport participation is not always positively correlated, let alone causally related, to a broader social integrated society. We argue that social integration in itself is a multidimensional process and distinguish three dimensions of integration (structural, social-cultural, and social-affective), which can all occur in and through the practice of sport. Furthermore we argue that the integrative meanings of sport depend on which social groups and which of the dimensions of integration are examined. The complementary and contradictory aspects of the dimensions of social integration with regard to four different social minority groups (ethnic minorities, the elderly, the physically challenged, gays and lesbians) are examined.
Inge Claringbould and Annelies Knoppers
The gender ratio of those in positions of leadership continues to be skewed toward a male majority. The purpose of this study is to explore how practices of gender may contribute to the lack of significant change in this skewed ratio in (sport) organizations. We situate our study within Martin’s (2003, 2006) notion of practices of gender. We conducted interviews with 15 sport journalists and 32 members of boards of governance of sport organizations to investigate how the skewed gender ratio was maintained and challenged by paradoxical practices of gender. The results show that practices of gender neutrality, normalcy and passivity strengthened and maintained the current gender skewness. We also give examples of disruptive practices that contributed to the undoing of gender in these organizations.