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Compassionate Coach and Psychological Quality of Life in Portuguese Athletes: Effect of Mediating Variables

Sara Oliveira, Marina Cunha, António Rosado, and Cláudia Ferreira

This study aimed to test a model that hypothesized that the compassionate coach, as perceived by the athletes, has an impact on athlete-related social safeness and psychological health, through shame and self-criticism. The sample comprised 270 Portuguese adult athletes, who practiced different competitive sports. The path analysis results confirmed the adequacy of the proposed model, which explained 45% of the psychological health’s variance. Results demonstrated that athletes who perceive their coaches as more compassionate tend to present higher levels of social safeness (feelings of belonging to the team) and of psychological health, through lower levels of shame and self-criticism. These novel findings suggest the importance of the adoption of supportive, warm, safe, and compassionate attitudes from coaches in athletes’ mental health. This study also offers important insights by suggesting that feelings of acceptance and connectedness in team relationships may be at the root of athletes’ emotional processes and well-being.

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Sport Sponsorship: The Relationship Between Team Loyalty, Sponsorship Awareness, Attitude Toward the Sponsor, and Purchase Intentions

Rui Biscaia, Abel Correia, Antonio Fernando Rosado, Stephen D. Ross, and João Maroco

Sponsorship studies have generally been focused on attitudinal measures of fan loyalty to understand the reactions to abstract sponsors. This study examines the relationships between both attitudinal and behavioral loyalty with sponsorship awareness, attitude toward two actual sponsors, and purchase intentions. Data were collected among fans of a professional soccer team, and the results of a structural equation model provide evidence that attitudinal loyalty impacts the attitude toward both sponsors and purchase intentions. Behavioral loyalty influences sponsorship awareness, and impacts differently the attitude and purchase intentions toward each sponsor. Sponsorship awareness influences significantly the attitude toward both sponsors, while the attitude toward the sponsor was the strongest predictor of purchase intentions. These findings highlight the importance of examining actual sponsors and suggest managerial implications, such as the need for sponsors to help attract fans to the stadium and to design additional activation strategies to improve sponsorship value.

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The Cross-Cultural Training Needs of Football Coaches

Mário Borges, António Rosado, Babett Lobinger, Francisco Freitas, and Rita F. de Oliveira

The ability to interact and communicate effectively in different cultural contexts has never been more relevant for football coaches because cultural diversity in football has increased in the past decades. Yet, there is a reduced number of institutions that are currently offering cultural training to coaches, and it is unknown whether coaches feel the need for such training. This study aimed to explore the cross-cultural training needs of 115 football coaches with national and/or international experience (M = 13.4 years; SD = 8.53). To maximise recruitment reach, an online survey with open-ended questions was used followed by a qualitative thematic analysis. There were four master themes: cross-cultural training needs in the global football market; cross-cultural awareness is important in football; football-specific cultural training; and training by migrant coaches, no matter how. Most coaches perceived a benefit from cultural training in preparation for international appointments, but some felt that coaches already had cultural awareness because they manage individuals and adjust easily to different cultures. Preferences were shown for cross-cultural training delivered by migrant coaches and with a football-specific focus. This is the first study to explore the perceptions of football coaches about cross-cultural awareness and training needs and provides insights to providers of coach education.