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  • Author: Anthony P. Turner x
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Anthony P. Turner, Taylor Smith and Simon G.S. Coleman

Purpose:

To evaluate the reliability and sensitivity to training of an audio-paced incremental swimming test.

Methods:

Eight young national-level male swimmers (age 15 ± 1 year) performed a 7 × 200-m incremental swimming test (velocities 1.19, 1.24, 1.28, 1.33, 1.39, and 1.45 m/s and maximal sprint pace) using an audio-pacing device. The same test was performed 4 times by each participant, 1 wk apart to assess reliability (WK1, WK2) and after 9 and 20 wk of training (WK9, WK20). Blood lactate concentration ([La]) and heart rate (HR) were recorded after each stage. Outcome measures were the velocity (v) and HR at lactate markers of 2 mM, 4 mM, and Δ1 mM.

Results:

Velocities at the lactate markers proved to be more reliable than HR, with typical errors ranging from 0.66% to 2.30% and 1.28% to 4.50%, respectively (shifts in mean ranged –0.91% to 0.73% and –0.84% to 1.79%, respectively). Across WK1, WK9, and WK20 there were significant improvements in peak velocity (P < .001) and each of the velocities associated with the lactate markers (P < .05), whereas only HR at Δ1 mM improved (P < .05).

Conclusions:

This article demonstrates that an audio-paced incremental swimming test is reliable for use with junior swimmers and is sensitive to changes observed after training. The postswimming measurement of HR in the pool was comparatively less reliable.

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Matthew Pearce, David H. Saunders, Peter Allison and Anthony P. Turner

Background: The distribution of adolescent moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) across multiple contexts is unclear. This study examined indoor and outdoor leisure time in terms of being structured or unstructured and explored relationships with total daily MVPA. Methods: Between September 2012 and January 2014, 70 participants (aged 11–13 y) from 4 schools in Edinburgh wore an accelerometer and global positioning system receiver over 7 days, reporting structured physical activity using a diary. Time spent and MVPA were summarized according to indoor/outdoor location and whether activity was structured/unstructured. Independent associations between context-specific time spent and total daily MVPA were examined using a multivariate linear regression model. Results: Very little time or MVPA was recorded in structured contexts. Unstructured outdoor leisure time was associated with an increase in total daily MVPA almost twice that of unstructured indoor leisure time [b value (95% confidence interval), 8.45 (1.71 to 14.48) vs 4.38 (0.20 to 8.22) minute increase per hour spent]. The association was stronger for time spent in structured outdoor leisure time [35.81 (20.60 to 52.27)]. Conclusions: Research and interventions should focus on strategies to facilitate time outdoors during unstructured leisure time and maximize MVPA once youth are outdoors. Increasing the proportion of youth engaging in structured activity may be beneficial given that, although time spent was limited, association with MVPA was strongest.

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Andrew M. Murray, Joong Hyun Ryu, John Sproule, Anthony P. Turner, Phil Graham-Smith and Marco Cardinale

Purpose:

Running performance is influenced by the interaction of biomechanical and physiological factors. Miniaturized accelerometers worn by athletes can be used to quantify mechanical aspects of running and as a noninvasive tool to assess training status and progression. The aim of this study was to define and validate a method to assess running regularity and allow the estimation of an individual’s oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and/or blood lactate—[La]b—based on data collected with accelerometers and heart rate.

Methods:

Male adolescent endurance athletes completed an incremental submaximal aerobic stage test where V̇O2 and [La]b were measured. The test was terminated when [La]b concentration at the end of the stage exceeded 4 mmol/L. Two wireless triaxial accelerometers were placed on participants’ right shank and lower back throughout the test. The root mean square (RMS) and sample entropy (SampEn) were calculated for the vertical, mediolateral, and anteroposterior components of acceleration.

Results:

There were significant positive correlations of acceleration and entropy variables with [La]b and V̇O2, with moderate to high coefficients (r = .43–.87). RMS of the shank acceleration was the most highly related with both physiological variables. When the accelerometer was attached on the trunk, SampEn of the vertical acceleration had the strongest relationship with V̇O2 (r = .76, P < .01).

Conclusions:

The described method analyzing running complexity may allow an assessment of gait variability, which noninvasively tracks V̇O2 and/or [La]b, allowing monitoring of fatigue or training readiness for trained adolescent individuals.